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Shu Li and Yongqing Fang

Respondents in Asian Cultures (e.g., Chinese) are More Risk-Seeking and More Overconfident than Respondents in Other Cultures (e.g., in United States) but the Reciprocal Predictions are in Total Opposition: How and Why? ∗ S HU L I ∗∗ and Y ONGQING F ANG ∗∗∗ ABSTRACT Triggered by rather

PauZ S. Minear

105 SOME ARCHETYPAL ORIGINS OF APOCALYPTIC PREDICTIONS* PauZ S. Minear Throughout the twentieth century, New Testament scholars, following upon the work of Johannes Weiss and Albert Schweitzer, have been obsessed with the problems involved in the recovery of early Christian eschatology.l As one

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Maurizio Gotti

Abstract

The paper analyses the evolution of the use of SHALL and WILL for the expression of the predictive function, using data drawn from both diachronic and synchronic corpora. For each period analysed, the following subcategories are taken into consideration: neutral prediction, prophecy, assurance. The aim of the longitudinal study carried out in the paper is to draw a few generalisations about some of the developments that have led to the contemporary usage of WILL and SHALL for the expression of predictive uses, so as to find confirmation of the evolutionary trend commonly pointed out in the literature about these central modals.

Tim Paris, Tim Paris, Jeesun Kim, Tim Paris, Jeesun Kim and Chris Davis

Dynamic stimuli often provide predictive information about upcoming events occurring in a different modality. From a predictive coding framework, such expected events would require less processing than unexpected ones. We tested this idea using neural and behavioural measures of auditory processing in a vision-predicts-sound paradigm.

In the experiment, participants were presented with a visual stimulus followed by either a low or high tone while EEG was recorded from a 256 channel active system. The visual stimulus was either a picture (no prediction), a movie cuing the time of an upcoming auditory event (Event prediction) or a movie cueing the type of tone (Tone prediction). In one third of trials, interspersed throughout the experiment, participants also responded to the tone with a button press.

In both conditions, participants responded faster to the predicted than the unpredicted sounds. ERP results showed that visual Event predictions resulted in significantly smaller P2 ERP amplitude. Conversely, Tone predictions resulted in greater P2 ERP amplitude. The results will be discussed in terms of a predictive coding account.

Fátima Vera-Constán, Irune Fernández-Prieto, Joel García-Morera and Jordi Navarra

We investigated whether perceiving predictable ‘ups and downs’ in acoustic pitch (as can be heard in musical melodies) can influence the spatial processing of visual stimuli as a consequence of a ‘spatial recoding’ of sound (see Foster and Zatorre, 2010; Rusconi et al., 2006). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a color discrimination task of a visual target that could appear either above or below a centrally-presented fixation point. Each experimental trial started with an auditory isochronous stream of 11 tones including a high- and a low-pitched tone. The visual target appeared isochronously after the last tone. In the ‘non-predictive’ condition, the tones were presented in an erratic fashion (e.g., ‘high-low-low-high-high-low-high …’). In the ‘predictive condition’, the melodic combination of high- and low-pitched tones was highly predictable (e.g., ‘low-high-low-high-low …’). Within the predictive condition, the visual stimuli appeared congruently or incongruently with respect to the melody (‘… low-high-low-high-low-UP’ or ‘… low-high-low-high-low-DOWN’, respectively). Participants showed faster responses when the visual target appeared after a predictive melody. Electrophysiologically, early (25–150 ms) amplitude effects of predictability were observed in frontal and parietal regions, spreading to central regions (N1) afterwards. Predictability effects were also found in the P2–N2 complex and the P3 in central and parietal regions. Significant auditory-to-visual congruency effects were also observed in the parieto-occipital P3 component. Our findings reveal the existence of crossmodal effects of perceiving auditory isochronous melodies on visual temporal orienting. More importantly, our results suggest that pitch information can be transformed into a spatial code that shapes the spatial processing in other modalities such as vision.

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Ronald Suleski

work Astrologer’s Predictions 1899 , and it measures 9½ inches (24.1 cm) high by 5¼ inches (23.5 cm) wide, giving it the typical oblong shape of traditional Chinese books. The paper is handmade and unbleached, leaving it a yellowish or tan color, and it was cut using traditional methods as shown by

Jean Blouin, Jean-Pierre Bresciani, Etienne Guillaud and Martin Simoneau

., 2006a; Ivanenko and Grasso, 1997 ; Ivanenko et al ., 1997a; Loomis et al ., 1992; Philbeck et al ., 2001) suggests that the brain precisely estimates trunk kinematics and takes into account the additional torques generated by the torso rotation. 6. Vestibular-Based Prediction of Body

David W. Howerter, Jay J. Rotella, Michael G. Anderson, Llwellyn M. Armstrong and James H. Devries

An animal's reproduction and survival depend critically on the choices it makes when selecting a habitat for breeding. Therefore, we expect animals to select breeding habitats that confer fitness benefits. For mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), previous research has shown that populations are most sensitive to variation in nest survival rates; thus, we expect strong selection for safe nest sites. We used patterns of nesting success to predict nest distributions. We compared distributions of nests from radio-marked mallard females (n = 1,710) to random locations using logistic regression and modeled how nest-site locations were related to a number of landscape metrics measured at several spatial scales. Consistent with predictions derived from patterns of nesting success, mallard nest sites were best modeled using habitat attributes measured at the scale of the vegetation patch containing the nest, though ultimately habitat features measured at multiple scales improved predictions. Similarly, for most habitat types mallards tended to nest away from habitat edges, as predicted. Conversely, opposite to predictions, mallards nested in smaller habitat patches and nearer to wetlands than expected by chance. Hence, mallards only provide equivocal evidence that nest-site selection is adaptive. Several possible explanations for this lack of correspondence between patterns of nesting success and nest-site selection include the following: insufficient time to adequately sample available habitats, unpredictable environments, nest sites selected to maximize a different vital rate (e.g., adult female survival), and, finally, anthropogenic changes to the landscape may have resulted in a decoupling of evolved cues used to select nest sites and current predation processes.

James Barr

93 PREDICTIONS AND SURPRISES: A RESPONSE TO WALTER BRUEGGEMANN'S REVIEW1 JAMES BARR jmsbarr@aoi.com 1432 Sitka Court, Claremont, CA 91711-2734 A marked feature of Dr. Brueggemann's review of my The Concept of Biblical Theology' (henceforth abbreviated as Concept) is his fre- quent use of the