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Edited by Kathleen E. Mahoney and Paul Mahoney

This unique and challenging volume is the result of a major international rights conference entitled Human Rights in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Challenge convened in Banff, Alberta, Canada in November 1990.
The conference was supported and organized under the auspices of the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe, The European Court of Human Rights, the European Human Rights Commission, the Strasbourg Institute of Comparative Human Rights Law, the Alberta Law Foundation and the International Centre at the University of Calgary.
Its main objectives were legal education and legal research, which were met by a total of 92 speakers representing 24 different nationalities presenting their views on 24 human rights topics. Women and participants from developing countries in particular, brought a new vision of human rights to topics as varied as reproductive technology, state violence, and biotechnology.
The theme of this book is thus the interdependence of legal, social, economic and environmental problems which transcend national and international boundaries and the spirit of solidarity which is required to resolve them.
Written by a team of international and renowned human experts, it will provide a substantial contribution to the legal literature on international human rights.

Edited by Christian D. de Fouloy

The European Strasbourg Register offers the reader a complete survey of all Strasbourg-based organizations with a European dimension. Strasbourg is not presented as a competitive site to Brussels, but rather as a city with a distinct focus and definite role to play in the construction of Europe. The geostrategic location of Strasbourg is of paramount importance in bridging Northern and Southern Europe, as well as in linking West and East. The presence in Strasbourg of such institutions as the European Parliament, the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights, coupled with the outstanding education and research facilities the city offers, accounts for Strasbourg's popularity among the international business and academic community.
Part One of The European Strasbourg Register contains in-depth articles by a number of leading personalities; Part Two provides a comprehensive, practical and highly detailed review of Strasbourg-based organizations with a European dimension, including intergovernmental organizations, such as the European Parliament, as well as non-governmental organizations, education and training institutions, trans-border cooperation associations, permanent foreign representatives and accredited press agencies. Thus this volume constitutes a unique and indispensable tool for diplomats, journalists, lawyers, national and international civil servants, businessmen, lobbyists, researchers and all those interested in European institutions and public affairs.

Ellen Hey

International law governing the settlement of disputes through law-based forums, such as courts, tribunals and arbitral tribunals, is fraught with limitations that are becoming especially apparent with respect to disputes that involve the protection of the environment. However despite the deficiencies of the law, international courts and tribunals have issued judgements in disputes involving the protection of the environment. At the global level the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) have handed down decisions in relevant cases. In addition other legal forums can also be called upon to decide cases involving international environmental law. Such forums include the Environmental Chamber of the ICJ and the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) under its general facilities and under the Environmental Facility that it is planning to establish. Similarly, special bodies, such as the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC), may decide on cases. Moreover, regional forums such as the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Community (ECJ) have ruled on cases involving international environmental law.
Despite these developments, calls for the establishment of an international environmental court at the global level persist. Several arguments have been advanced to justify the establishment of an international environmental court, for example the very many pressing environmental problems that exist today and the need for a bench consisting of experts in international environmental law to consider these problems, the need for individuals and groups to have access to environmental justice at the international level, the need to enable international organizations to be parties to disputes related to the protection of the environment and the need for dispute settlement procedures that enable the common interest in the environment to be addressed. Arguments against the establishment of an international environmental court have been advanced as well. These arguments include the following: the proliferation of international courts and tribunals would result in the fragmentation of international law, existing courts and tribunals are, or can be, well equipped to consider cases involving environmental issues and disputes involving international environmental law also involve other aspects of international law.
This publication explores the arguments for and against the establishment of an international environmental court, examining topics such as the definition of an international environmental dispute and the concomitant expertise required on the bench, fragmentation and its root causes, access to justice and the representation of community interests.
The author argues that the establishment of an international environmental court is not the most desirable option and she suggests that it might be more fruitful if we consider developments in environmental law, as well as in other relevant areas of international law, from a different perspective, namely, that of administrative law and reassess the relationship between international and national law. Such an approach, she argues is warranted if, inter alia, viable means for resolving environmental disputes that may arise are to be identified.

Series:

Edited by Council of Europe/Conseil de l'Europe

This volume of the Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights, prepared by the Directorate of Human Rights of the Council of Europe, relates to 2001. Its presentation follows that of previous volumes. Part one contains
basic texts and information of a general nature; part two deals with the European Commission of Human Rights; part three with the European Court
of Human Rights; part four with the Resolutions of the Committee of Ministers; and parts five and six with the other work of the Council of Europe
in the field of human rights, the situation in the Member States, and developments within the European Communities. A bibliography and index are included.

Edited by Laurence Boisson de Chazournes, Cesare Romano and Ruth Mackenzie

This book contains the thoughts of officials of international organizations and NGOs, member of judicial bodies, and academics on the role of international organizations and the settlement of contentious cases before international judicial bodies. The timely work will undoubtedly be of interest to practitioners and scholars who are involved in issues related to cases before international judicial bodies.



Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.

Edited by ASIL/NVIR

Contemporary International Law Issues: Opportunities at a Time of Momentous Change is the record of the Second Joint Conference of The American Society of International Law and the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Internationaal Recht, which was held in The Hague, on July 22--24, 1993. At this event international scholars, practitioners and experts gathered to discuss the latest developments in such areas as trade and investment, the environment, human rights, law of the sea, settlement of disputes, international criminal law, NAFTA, the European Community, and commercial arbitration with particular reference to Central and Eastern Europe. The content of these Proceedings bears evidence of the wide range of dialogue that occurred during the Joint Conference and directs the reader to issues which might form suitable subjects for further research and elaboration in other scholarly work. The book will be of interest to academics and diplomats, as well as legal practitioners.

Edited by Mireille Delmas-Marty

Europe is caught between the extreme diversity of national systems and the increasing complexity of supranational institutions. Some fear the worst. They claim that diversity is linked to insecurity because, from one country to another, the sanction for the same crime varies considerably.
Several years' experience has shown in cases of transborder crimes that the development of mutual assistance pacts improves the efficiency of the national systems. Beyond that, it seems inevitable that, at least in the area of frauds against Community financial interests, we will arrive at a system of Community penal and administrative sanctions to meet the demand of the European Parliament, on the condition that the sanctions respect the democratic principles of legality and an independent judiciary.
Starting from the plurality of European legal sources (Community law, the Conventions of the Council of Europe, the Schengen Accords, the Conference on Security and Co-operation) and their underlying logic (national interests, European interests, security/protection of fundamental rights), this volume examines their impact on the subjects of the Maastricht Treaty.
After describing practices of control and sanction, as well as procedures and guarantees, it tackles the ultimate question of common guiding principles. The bet being that, beyond the bottom line of current penal policy, it could be the design for - in the singular, no longer the plural - a criminal policy for the Europe of tomorrow.

Edited by Marcelo Kohen

This Liber Amicorum is published at the occasion of Judge Lucius Caflisch’s retirement from a distinguished teaching career at the Graduate Institute of International Studies of Geneva, where he served as Professor of International Law for more than three decades, and where he has also held the position of Director. It was written by his colleagues and friends, from the European Court of Human Rights, from universities all around the world, from the Swiss Foreign Affairs Ministry and many other national and international institutions.
The Liber Amicorum Lucius Caflisch covers different fields in which Judge Caflisch has excelled in his various capacities, as scholar, representative of Switzerland in international conferences, legal adviser of the Swiss Foreign Affairs Ministry, counsel, registrar, arbitrator and judge. This collective work is divided into three main sections. The first section examines questions concerning human rights and international humanitarian law. The second section is devoted to the international law of spaces, including matters regarding the law of the sea, international waterways, Antarctica, and boundary and territorial issues. The third section addresses issues related to the peaceful settlement of disputes, both generally and with regard to any particular means of settlement. The contributions are in both English and French.