Military Architecture 1600-1900 contains a selection of 99 printed works that represents the revolutionary developments in fortification in Early Modern Europe in theory and in practice. Similar to the arts, military architecture was split up in national schools or styles, so called fortification manners. The works of Busca, Cattaneo, De Marchi, Tensini, Theti, Zanchi, reflect the Italian School, Errard and Perret the French one and
Specklin’s Architektur von Vestungen is an adaptation of the Italian school in Germany. Stevin’s
Sterctenbouwing discusses Cattaneo, Theti and Specklin to assess the benefits of their fortification systems for the Low Countries. The later French school is well represented by Pagan and the works of probably the most famous engineer of all times, Vauban. His various “fortification manners” were applied all over Europe and beyond. The selected works of Menno van Coehoorn reveal how the French system was introduced in the Netherlands, while the works of Paen, Melder, Ruysch and Sturm are illustrative for the heavy debates that resulted from adapting such complex systems to the nordic situation. While these works in
Military Architecture 1600-1900 allow for a comparative analysis in text and image of European fortification schools, others focus on more local conditions such as Stevin’s works in Dutch and French on the role of pivoted sluices in the fortifications of various harbor towns. Moreover,
Military Architecture 1600-1900 provides insight in the training of fortification in theory and practice for multiple “user-groups”. While the works of the classical authors Caesar, Valturius and Vegetius were used for the philological study of the military arts at universities, the reality of warfare required for training of practical skills for engineers and landsurveyors in the field. Translations of Euclid, works on the practice of geometry and landsurveying (Mallet, Nienrode, Metius, Sems&Dou) were filling that gap.
Military Architecture 1600-1900 represents the protagonists of the history of fortification, it also includes lesser known authors such as Bruist, Capo-Bianco, Gaya, Gerbier and Pfeffinger. Moreover, the selection does not limit itself to military architecture, but includes the military arts (artillery, army camps, siege) and history.
- Prof.dr. Charles van den Heuvel,
Huygens ING and University of Amsterdam
This collection was published earlier in a microfiche collection by IDC Publishers.
the Romanesque languages, both regarded the former as an inferior copy and adaptation of the latter, the true Roman art which was seen as perfect and timeless. This idea was immediately widely accepted. Further dissemination of this understanding came in 1824, when Arcisse de Caumont (1801
their courtly elites, developed a new urge to use references to antiquity for their arguments and thus to assign specific functions to humanist cultural innovation. The efforts to reform church and empire became an essential catalyst for the reception and adaptation of the ideas of Italian humanism. The
architecture may be productively understood as expressive of the adaptations of Mahayana Buddhism in the context of the indigenous religions of Korean Shamanism and Japanese Shinto, both of which remain culturally significant. There are particular congruencies in Japan, where Shinto had established specific
from St. Mary’s, the church of merchants and crusaders, were engaged in the construction work – obviously, there is no reason to talk about conflicts between different patrons in Visby during that period.
However, the most intriguing question concerns the spatial change. Why was adaptation of the
be as affordable as other materials currently on the market. Traditional handmade mud brick construction is inexpensive, but requires many modifications in order to withstand moisture and to meet contemporary codes and standards. One modern adaptation of mud brick is the compressed earth block ( CEB
them. The builders used local materials and (contrary to popular belief that associates the use of earth in architecture with poverty) its use results from a population’s adaptation to its environment. 51 There is a regional specificity in southeastern Algeria: the Mzāb, the Miya, and the Rīgh are
of Eastern Christianity. The notion of the immutability of Byzantine inheritance, whether via text, image, or idea, anchors the received artifact in space and time and estranges the possibility of adaptation and interpretation. 54 The case of court rituals in Rus/Muscovy and the Byzantine Empire
th centuries, is not a synthesis of artistic and architectural elements drawn from distinct church building traditions. Rather, these buildings display an adaptation and translation of select elements, such as the triconch layout, in order to fulfill certain needs. For instance, the desire of the
adaptation and translation of imported modernity and formulate the indigenous version. This process of enculturation, as Randolf David explains, designates the conscious and selective adoption of vernacular and indigenous elements from the local culture in order to lend a touch of familiarity to something