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Esben Petersen

the prediction objection , i.e., the objection that skeptical predictions conflict with the way we ordinarily speak and think about knowledge ( Bonjour 2010, DeRose 1995, Greco 2000, Grice 1989, Hawthorne 2004, Lewis 1996 , Schaffer 2004a ). Roughly put, the objection is that skepticism leads to

Dirk Kindermann

mpi makes the wrong predictions in many cases; further pragmatic theses aside, the views are committed to a particularly implausible form of speaker error. Or so I will argue in sections 2–6, taking into account patterns of cross-contextual rejection of knowledge claims, of retraction (section 4

Mitchell S. Green

This essay ties together some main strands of the author’s research spanning the last quarter-century. Because of its broad scope and space limitations, he prescinds from detailed arguments and instead intuitively motivates the general points which are supported more fully in other publications to which he provides references. After an initial delineation of several distinct notions of meaning (Section 1), the author considers (Section 2) such a notion deriving from the evolutionary biology of communication that he terms ‘organic meaning’, and places it in the context of evolutionary game theory. That provides a framework for a special type of organic meaning found in the phenomenon of expression (3), of which the author here offers an updated characterization while highlighting its wide philosophical interest. Expression in turn generalizes to a paradigmatic form of human communication—conversation—and section 4 provides a taxonomy of conversation-types while arguing that attention to such types helps to sharpen predictions of what speakers say rather than conversationally implicate. We close (5) with a view of fictional discourse on which authors of fictional works are engaged in conversation with their readers, and can provide them with knowledge in spite of the fictional character of their conversation. Such knowledge includes knowledge of how an emotion feels and is thus a route to empathy.

Majid Davoody Beni

belief formation. The paper makes a strong improvement upon the existing extensions of reliabilism in this respect. That is to say, I characterise reliable processes in terms of prediction error minimisation cognitive mechanisms (as being revealed by the Prediction Error Minimisation theory [ pem for

Heath Williams

-line processing,’ during which “the output is not actual behavior but only predictions or anticipations of behavior” ( Gordon 2009 ). As Beyer observes, offline processing is the equivalent of Husserl’s key notion of imaginative ‘neutrality modification’ ( Beyer 2012 , 114). A striking terminological overlap

J. Adam Carter

wrong kinds of inferences, predictions, etc.). On a performative reading, understanding implies not just grasping but successful grasping. On a success reading, grasping is implicitly successful in the way understanding demands. We are in a position to say something now about how to fill in our blank

Richard Moore

default choice. However this yields a prediction that contrasts with Tomasello’s claim about the rarity of informative communication. In any species where the reproductive success of individuals in a group is dependent on the flourishing of others, there will be selective pressure for pro

Alex Davies

world they describe; namely, Nancy Cartwright’s (1999) (see also ( Hempel, 1988 )). A traditional account of scientific law-statements treats them as unbounded generalizations about the universe. We infer them from observations that do not entail them. We use them to make predictions about

Kurt C.M. Mertel

or to the syntactic one, with the latter playing a more important role when the goal is prediction or explanation of behaviour. Finally, the third element consists in choosing the relevant ilf , which involves S and H negotiating the expressions that will be used to speak of the elements of H

Seungbae Park

hypothesis was successful in helping to dramatically reducing the high mortality rate in the first maternity division. Imagine that both pessimists and anti-inductivists had been watching Semmelweis as he was about to put the sixth hypothesis to the test. They would have made opposite predictions about the