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In: The construction of intercultural discourse
Author: Xiangling LI
The Chinese are known as an inscrutable people in the West. With the rapid globalisation of world business, China, with its booming economy and as one of the world's largest emerging markets, is attracting increasing numbers of international traders and investors. Various sources have shown that language and culture are, among other factors, two of the major obstacles to successful business collaborations between the Chinese and Westerners. This dissertation aims to help remove these obstacles by offering some insights into the intricate mechanisms of business negotiation between the Chinese and the Dutch.
While most of the research concerning Chinese-Western communication has used everyday conversation as the subject of study, this research chooses negotiation, the core of international business, as its subject. Micro-level qualitative discourse analyses are used as the main research method in addition to ethnographic methods such as the questionnaire survey and interview. The main data used are simulated as well as real-life video-taped Chinese-Dutch business negotiations. Questionnaire survey and interview data from real-life Chinese and Dutch negotiators are used as support data. The phenomena recurrently cropping up across the negotiations are examined at a turn-to-turn level to pinpoint places where problems arise that prevent the negotiators from reaching mutual understandings and fulfilling negotiation goals. The deep-rooted cultural concepts underlying the linguistic phenomena prove to be the main trouble sources. The results of this research are relevant for both the academic and business world.
An Interdisciplinary Semantic Study
Author: C.P. Biggam
Blue in Old English represents the first thorough investigation of an area of the colour semantics of Old English, and the methodology developed for this study is believed to be appropriate for researching the colour semantics of any language which survives only in recorded texts. By means of a collection of in-depth word-studies, which suggest new interpretations of many well-known passages, an understanding of how blueness was described in Old English is developed. The approach is interdisciplinary, using evidence from subjects such as botany, manuscript illustration, etymology, early technologies, and others. The conclusion contradicts certain previously held views on Old English colour, and presents a hitherto obscured sociolinguistic picture of differing language use among various groups of Old English speakers.
Orality and the Body in the Work of Harris, Philip, Allen, and Brand
This book develops a theory of multimodality – the participation of a text in more than one mode – centred on the poetry/poetics of Lillian Allen, Claire Harris, Dionne Brand, and Marlene Nourbese Philip. How do these poets represent oral Caribbean English Creoles (CECs) in writing and negotiate the relationship between the high literary in Canadian letters and the social and historical meanings of CECs? How do the latter relate to the idea of “female and black”?
Through fluid use of code- and mode-switching, the movement of Brand and Philip between creole and standard English, and written orality and standard writing forms part of their meanings. Allen’s eye-spellings precisely indicate stereotypical creole sounds, yet use the phonological system of standard English. On stage, Allen projects a black female body in the world and as a speaking subject. She thereby shows that the implication of the written in the literary excludes her body’s language (as performance); and she embodies her poetry to realize a ‘language’ alternative to the colonizing literary. Harris’s creole writing helps her project a fragmented personality, a range of dialects enabling quite different personae to emerge within one body. Thus Harris, Brand, Philip, and Allen both project the identity “female and black” and explore this social position in relation to others.
Considering textual multimodality opens up a wide range of material connections. Although written, this poetry is also oral; if oral, then also embodied; if embodied, then also participating in discourses of race, gender, sexuality, and a host of other systems of social organization and individual identity. Finally, the semiotic body as a mode (i.e. as a resource for making meaning) allows written meanings to be made that cannot otherwise be expressed in writing. In every case, Allen, Philip, Harris, and Brand escape the constraints of dominant media, refiguring language via dialect and mode to represent a black feminist sensibility.


Gadjo Dilo was directed in 1997 by Tony Gatlif, a French filmmaker about whom it is often specified that he is of Roma origin. The main topic of this road movie is not multilingualism but as many of the works studied in the second part of this volume, Gadjo Dilo represents the encounter between subjects who must find ways to communicate in some European linguistic borderzone, because they do not speak the same language. We follow a Frenchman, Stéphane, who travels to a small village in Romania, to look for a singer he will never find. Instead, he will take the time to discover a new language, or rather what it means to learn the rudiments of a minority language in the absence of any educational or institutional frame.

In: Multilingual Europe, Multilingual Europeans

between sibling order and gender article production in both the subject and object position. 3 To begin, Figure 7 reveals the distribution of target and non-target 4 cases of article gender in the subject position for each of the selected sibling pairs (percentage of target form shown in figure

In: Multilingualism and the Role of Sibling Order

. Methodologically, not all VP  s included an expressed subject or object whereby the article was supplied, so it was logical to individually account for gender article in both the subject and object positions in each clause. First, let us consider the coding of gender article agreement for nouns in the

In: Multilingualism and the Role of Sibling Order

English) in all subjects required by law. The use of native language for instruction is influenced by the English language proficiency and the student’s academic level in their native language. However, the use of Spanish decreases throughout the grades as students gradually transition into all English

In: Multilingualism and the Role of Sibling Order
Author: Maren Rüsch

NRM ’s motives were more concerned with eradicating them altogether. Laruni 2015:213 Since 2006, displaced people started to return from the camps (Oosterom 2011), yet Gulu town and the surrounding district are still widely subject to humanitarian aid projects and NGO  s

In: A Conversational Analysis of Acholi
Author: Maren Rüsch

:140) identifies them as “descriptive adverbs”. As in other languages (Childs 1994), ideophones in Acholi are subjected to collocational restrictions: while some ideophones can be used to modify several words, others are bound to a single verb or adjective that they depict and emphasize. In the case of

In: A Conversational Analysis of Acholi