copies (particles) of the kinematics variable are used, each one associated with a weight that signifies the quality of that specific particle. An estimate of the kinematics variables is obtained by the weighted sum of all the particles. The algorithm is recursive with prediction and update phases. The
No. 1999-01-3646 . SAE World Congress, Detroit, MI (1999). 11. H. Dannheim, U. Schmid and A. Roosen, Lifetime prediction for mechanically stressed low temperature co-fired ceramics, Journal of the European Ceramic Society 24 , 2187–2192 (2004). 12. H. Schultz, Electron Beam Welding . Abington
) have not been carried out for the prediction of servovalve characteristics. Simulation using numerical tools such as FEM is very useful during the design of the servovalve. FEM is now widely used in the analysis of solids and structures and they provide many advantages in the design of products
This volume of collected essays, the first of its kind in any language, investigates the Astronomical Diaries from ancient Babylon, a collection of almost 1000 clay tablets which, over a period of some five hundred years (6th century to 1st century BCE), record observations of selected astronomical phenomena as well as the economy and history of Mesopotamia and surrounding regions. The volume asks who the scholars were, what motivated them to ‘keep watch in Babylon’ and how their approach changed in the course of the collection’s long history. Contributors come from a range of disciplinary backgrounds, including Assyriology, Classics, ancient history, the history of science and the history of religion.
physics will become the directing forces behind new discoveries, not experiments, material ontologies, and telescopes. 3 The laws of change themselves might not be dependent on predictable results; they might produce different predictions in different environmental universes. For Hoyle, the search for
The purpose of this chapter is to examine the astronomical knowledge, and more specifically the astronomical tools, that ancient astrologers in Mesopotamia and the Greco-Roman world possessed and used. Much of its content will be well known to specialists in ancient astronomy and astrology, but this is the first broad treatment of the topic. The roughly 1200-year evolution of astrological practice surveyed in this chapter is characterized by several shifts. First, interpretation of direct observations of the heavens was progressively supplanted by reliance on predicted astronomical data. Second, prediction based on the principle that astronomical phenomena observed in the past would approximately repeat after certain time intervals (called recurrence periods) gave way to mathematical models that had a more remote derivation from observations. Finally, astrologers became increasingly removed from the production of the astronomical information they used and increasingly dependent on published almanacs comprising precomputed data. This chapter is thus a contribution to understanding the expertise of an ancient astrologer as well as its limits.
about the underlying nature of human experience and about the physics which underlies such predictions. Some very fundamental levels of physics involve probabilities, but we know quite a lot of about those, too. Given the facts and the theories, we understand what is going on. We must always remember
and obviously inadequate. Then, through a variety of theoretical techniques, including the skillful use of predictions, they refine their analogies, sometimes to high levels of sophistication. 37 Unfortunately, as clockworks so vividly illustrate, any number of quite diverse mechanisms can produce
,” 130 but these laws which cannot be used to give firm predictions are nonetheless useful: “… whenever it is sufficient to know how the great majority of the human race, or of some nation or class of persons, will think, feel, and act, these propositions are equivalent to universal ones.” 131 Such is