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Slips of the Ear

Errors in the Perception of Casual Conversation

Zinny Bond

Occasionally, listeners' strategies for dealing with casual speech lead them into an erroneous perception of the intended message - a slip of the ear. When such errors occur, listeners report hearing, as clearly and distinctly as any correctly perceived stretch of speech, something that does not correspond to the speaker's utterance. This book describes and analyzes a collection of almost 1000 examples of misperceptions from real-life conversations. Its coverage includes: complete data set of misperceptions in casual conversation; language understanding in ordinary circumstances; and, classifications and descriptions according to linguistic properties.


Maria Manoliu-Manea

This book constitutes a quest for discourse and pragmatic features responsible for so-called optional grammatical choices. In an attempt to adduce new evidence for the assumption that, in order to capture adequately the reasons for the choice of various grammatical devices, a multi-variable model is necessary which could account for the development and the functioning of grammaticalized ethno-linguistic features in a variety of languages. The main hypothesis put forward is that, limited as they are by the possibilities of a given language, the choices open to speakers when reconstructing linguistically the state of affairs are determined first and foremost by their foci of attention. Orality is one the most salient features of Romanian, but the profound consequences of such a feature for Romanian grammar have not been fully explored. The most frequently invoked characteristic of this orality has been labeled 'redundancy', as is manifest in the proliferation of clitics. But, as shown by the data analyzed in this book, the impact of orality on Romanian grammar is much more far-reaching, encompassing such phenomena as: the preference for specific syntactic constructions as markers of the central discourse entity around which the event is reconstructed linguistically; the grammaticalization of the means for marking differences in the degree of discourse prominence (the degree of discourse-activated knowledge); the extensive use of markers of discourse continuity; the means by which the story is 'visualized'; the grammaticalization of various means used for marking stage distance (backgrounding versus foregrounding the event); and, diversified means for marking differences between speakers' expectations. The book highlights those features of Romanian grammar which can be most satisfactorily explained by the interaction between grammar and various discourse and pragmatic strategies.

William RitchieundTej Bhatia

The New Handbook of Second Language Acquisition is a thoroughly revised, re-organized, and re-worked edition of Ritchie and Bhatia's 1996 handbook. The work is divided into six parts, each devoted to a different aspect of the study of SLA. Part I includes a recent history of methods used in SLA research and an overview of currently used methods. Part II contains chapters on Universal Grammar, emergentism, variationism, information-processing, sociocultural, and cognitive-linguistic. Part III is devoted to overviews of SLA research on lexicon, morphosyntax, phonology, pragmatics, sentence processing, and the distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge. Part IV examines neuropsycholgy of SLA, another on child SLA, and the effects of age on second language acquisition and use. Part V is concerned with the contribution of the linguistic environment to SLA, including work on acquisition in different environments, through the Internet, and by deaf learners. Finally, Part VI treats social factors in SLA, including research on acquisition in contact circumstances, on social identity in SLA, on individual differences in SLA, and on the final state of SLA, bilingualism.

William Salmon

International Review of Pragmatics 1 (2009) 249–292 © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI 10.1163/187730909X12535267111570 1 Example (1a) is taken from Perini ( 2002 : §39.3), and (1b) is example (7.51b) in Azevedo ( 2005 ). Double Subjects and Conventional Implicatures William

Multimodality in Canadian Black Feminist Writing

Orality and the Body in the Work of Harris, Philip, Allen, and Brand


Maria Caridad Casas

This book develops a theory of multimodality – the participation of a text in more than one mode – centred on the poetry/poetics of Lillian Allen, Claire Harris, Dionne Brand, and Marlene Nourbese Philip. How do these poets represent oral Caribbean English Creoles (CECs) in writing and negotiate the relationship between the high literary in Canadian letters and the social and historical meanings of CECs? How do the latter relate to the idea of “female and black”?
Through fluid use of code- and mode-switching, the movement of Brand and Philip between creole and standard English, and written orality and standard writing forms part of their meanings. Allen’s eye-spellings precisely indicate stereotypical creole sounds, yet use the phonological system of standard English. On stage, Allen projects a black female body in the world and as a speaking subject. She thereby shows that the implication of the written in the literary excludes her body’s language (as performance); and she embodies her poetry to realize a ‘language’ alternative to the colonizing literary. Harris’s creole writing helps her project a fragmented personality, a range of dialects enabling quite different personae to emerge within one body. Thus Harris, Brand, Philip, and Allen both project the identity “female and black” and explore this social position in relation to others.
Considering textual multimodality opens up a wide range of material connections. Although written, this poetry is also oral; if oral, then also embodied; if embodied, then also participating in discourses of race, gender, sexuality, and a host of other systems of social organization and individual identity. Finally, the semiotic body as a mode (i.e. as a resource for making meaning) allows written meanings to be made that cannot otherwise be expressed in writing. In every case, Allen, Philip, Harris, and Brand escape the constraints of dominant media, refiguring language via dialect and mode to represent a black feminist sensibility.

Shaping identities in interaction by cognitive meanings

The variable usage of usted (es) as second-person object in Spanish

María José Serrano

fact, previous findings on pronominal subject variants in Spanish have shown that both expression and omission of the subject endow a different cognitive perception of clause structure and of the communicative content expressed (Aijón Oliva and Serrano, 2013). This justifies the assumption that the

Leadership, credibility and persuasion

A view from three public policy discourses

Iga Lehman, Łukasz SułkowskiundPiotr Cap

kind of legitimization is expressed involves ‘a saying verb with the relevant authority as subject’ (1999: 105). In academic discourse source-tagging can be associated with various aspects of intertextuality , a term coined by Kristeva (1966) and used (among many others) by Fairclough (1992a) to refer

Siaw-Fong Chung

. The sentence in (1a) shows an example of Malay transitive construction ( AVO ), whereas (1b) shows an intransitive one ( SV ). Following this convention, “ A ” stands for transitive subject and “ S ” stands for intransitive subject. For the Malay transcripts, sometimes a hyphen or hyphens were added