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AUGUST REINISCH

accord direct effect to directives, this serves as the background to show how broadly EC law has already entered into the scope of national law and required changes in order to make private rights "real and effective". Pertinent questions concerning, among others, the limit of horizontal direct effect

V. Gurfinkel, M. Lipshits, J. McIntyre and G. Leone

symmetry detection task. It is known that on earth subjects' performance is significantly superior for a vertical or horizontal than for an obliquely oriented axis of symmetry, giving a so-called oblique effect. The present results show that this oblique effect did not disappear in microgravity. They

Catherine Stevens, Wendy Joung and Cyril Latimer

1994; revised 2 September; accepted 19 September 1994 Abstract-This paper reports experimental data and results of network simulations in a project on sym- metry detection in small 6 x 6 binary patterns. Patterns were symmetrical about the vertical, horizontal, positive-oblique, or negative

Susan Dieleman

In Pragmatist Egalitarianism, David Rondel seeks to circumvent traditional debates about egalitarianism, which endlessly revolve around the question of what equality actually looks like. He characterizes this debate as being between vertical egalitarians and horizontal egalitarians. The term

David R. Badcock and Gerald Westheimer

extent by the target's height i.e. information orthogonal to the target's main axis. This was done by placing a vertical flank at a horizontal distance from the target that would be clearly within one zone or the other and measuring the effect of a vertical separation between the two flank halves. In the

Peter C. Dodwell and Patrick Flanagan

figure indicates the mean effect that is just significantly different from zero, using a Bonferroni t-test. The least significant difference between a pair of means in this case is 0.142, i.e. about 30% greater. 167 Figure 5. Log threshold elevation for vertical and horizontal gratings and the pair

Martha Arterberry and Catherine Craver-Lemley

with the target and produced a Perky effect. In Experiment 2, the image (horizontal bar) did not overlap with the target and had an insigniŽ cant effect on detection performance. One might be concerned that the Perky effect was due to some vertical component of the image and not the distance between

John F. Stout and Charles J. Amlaner

model movements in a manner similar to normal directional movement in both the Upright and Horizontal series. The posture (Upright or Horizontal) of the model's body did have an effect on the subsequent responses of the territory resident. Table 6 shows that as long as the model was moving toward or

Claude Bonnet and André Dufour

; Vert: distractors vertical.) The percentage of correct responses increases when target and surround have same orientation and decreases when they have opposite orientation, as compared with performance when the surround is either vertical or horizontal. This effect holds whatever the orientation of the

Miguel García-Pérez and Eli Peli

that has been discussed (Pelli, 1997) but does not seem to have been thoroughly studied empirically (but see Mulligan and Stone, 1989; Klein et al ., 1996; Lages, 1998) is the effect of horizontal as compared to vertical interactions. If both types of interaction were identical, static gratings would