people’s social standing, preservation of life, and luck…. Not only that, they also thought that knowing satisfaction could be a subjective standard for evaluating wealth. If one masters knowing satisfaction even though they may be objectively poor, they may still be able to subjectively think of
it means weakening one’s subjective intentions. The [auxiliary] word “ yan 焉 [how, herein; used to end a phrase]” is missing in the received version, but Fu Yi’s, Sima Guang’s, Li Yue’s 李约 (d. 810), Wu Cheng’s, and Fan Yingyuan’s versions have the word “ yan 焉 [how, herein; used to end a phrase
In his study of the human, non-human relationships in Mongolia, Bernard Charlier explores the role of the wolf in the ways nomadic herders relate to their natural environment and to themselves. The wolf, as the enemy of the herds and a prestigious prey, is at the core of two technical relationships, herding and hunting, endowed with particular cosmological ideas. The study of these relationships casts a new light on the ways herders perceive and relate to domestic and wild animals. It convincingly undermines any attempt to consider humans and non-humans as entities belonging a priori to autonomous spheres of existence, which would reify the nature-society boundary into a phenomenal order of things and so justify the identity of western epistemology.
regulations and acts numerous as well as harsh, one does not deserve to govern a state. Argument “For learning” means seeking external experiential knowledge, which can be accumulated and gained. “For the Dao” means renouncing stubbornness and subjective opinions, opening one’s heart and mind to a wider
This edited volume explores the complex roles that Christian ideas and institutions played in the construction of modern womanhood in East Asia. While contributing to gender dynamics that disprivileged women in China, Japan, and Korea, Christianity was also instrumental in women’s efforts to empower themselves and participate in the public sphere. Many literate East Asian women mobilized Christian beliefs, knowledge, institutions, and networks to raise the profile of “The Woman Question,” frame the contours of the related debate, and craft original responses. These chapters examine East Asian women who were markedly influenced by Christianity as students, trainees, educators, professionals, and activists. Using their increased visibility and resources, they addressed the dilemmas and promises of modernity for women in their countries.
depressed, they get the impression that the mountains and rivers and the whole face of the earth is suffused with sadness and gloom. In this way, subjective human emotions are projected onto external things and human feelings are attributed to the cosmos. Laozi on the other hand refrains from attributing
grasp the principle from all things. Secondly, that one should not blindly satisfy one’s material desires (a reckless satisfaction of desire causes one to lose oneself). Thirdly, that, during cognitive activity, one should eliminate personal desire and subjective opinions, look in at one’s original
difficulties. Argument “Non-action actions”, i.e. being in accordance with the objective conditions, thus not subjectively forcing any rash actions, is the direction for ordering the world that Laozi repeatedly points out. As regards small, great, difficult, and easy problems, Daoism prompts numerous
show their mutual generative function within the relationship of opposition: they oppose each other but also depend on and complement each other. All concepts and values in the human realm are established by humans and permeated by subjective attachments and arbitrary judgements, thus giving rise to
to two distinct thoughts in the history of Chinese philosophy. Firstly, it came to be seen as a return oriented towards one’s inner subjectivity and agency. The heart-mind of human beings is originally pure and perfect, but comes to be disturbed by all sorts of acquired desires and forms of knowledge