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verbs. Identified participants involve the agent involved in the activity coded by the verb (i.e. “the person who volitionally carries out physical activity which results in contact with some external object and the transmission of energy to that object” ( Langacker, 2002 : 210)), the patient (i

in Cognitive Semantics
著者: Antonio Barcelona

much was really superfluous for the purpose of being understood by others”. Therefore, length (“short”) is normally associated with energeticness, but these should be regarded as distinct dimensions. The main component of energeticness is a special application of energy, often manifested in the use of

in Cognitive Semantics

their creative energies to fashion a steady flow of new expressions to feed back in—keep the whole thing going. [ Langacker 1977 : 106–107] Of course, I would never deliver such a sermon except to show the misguided nature of this moral stance (heroic though it may be) as well as the futility of making

in Cognitive Semantics
著者: Wes Raykowski

) intensive factor ∙ (volume) extensive factor [8] Energy product = (power) intensive factor ∙ (time) extensive factor In the context of their respective products, ‘unit cost - number of units’ [5], ‘speed - time’ [6], ‘density - volume’ [7] and ‘power - time’ [8] are all pairs of orthogonyms

in Cognitive Semantics

’s possession of the concept of objective truth. 7 In this paper, the notion of “source” is applied to non-motional clauses only. “Barrier” is subsumed to the “scope of modality” which (in motional clauses, transitive or intransitive) ­refers to 1) the amount of energy applied by an agent to a target

in Cognitive Semantics
著者: Wes Raykowski

feelings (e.g., levels of joy/fear ), social relations (e.g., level of worth/control ), engineering (e.g., pressure/volume levels ), physics (e.g., level of measurement and energy levels ), biology (e.g., cellular and ecological levels ), geography (e.g.,  taxonomic levels and level

in Cognitive Semantics
著者: Laura A. Janda

through the linguistic spectrum, because meaning is the very energy that propels the motor of language. Grammar is an abstract meaning structure that interacts with the more concrete meanings of lexicon. Grammar and lexicon are not two discrete types of meaning, but rather the extreme ends of a spectrum

in Cognitive Semantics
著者: Raymond W. Gibbs

the case of “The war absorbed his energy.” Type III- an adjective-noun phrase, such as “sweet girl.” The algorithm, called the “concrete overlap algorithm” ( coa ), is based both on selectional preferences and the determination of abstractness (as an indicator of whether a potentially

in Cognitive Semantics
著者: Leonard Talmy

add energy to overcome its resistance.” The semantic and syntactic structure of (37a) promotes the idea that one can select a set of atoms for consideration together as a unitized concept, a molecule. But there is no physical property of “entityhood” inhering in this set of atoms such that

in Cognitive Semantics
著者: Yongxian Luo

, impetus, momentum, tendency” c. 劲头 jìn-tóu (strength-head) “strength, energy, vigour, vitality” d. 派头 pài-tóu (style-head) “bearing, manner” (8a–d) show how abstract nouns are formed from concrete nouns with “head”. In (8a), wind is conceived of having a “head

in Embodiment in Cross-Linguistic Studies