relationship. The spirits – in secular terms: the memories – of the dead arrive
at the altar to share a moment with the living. They are received with the ap-
propriate food and drinks, precisely the ones they enjoyed during their life.
Choosing and preparing the food and drinks (did
(under sunlight) as well as alife in nature in the form of animals and/or
natural phenomena (nahuales), alife of reason and one of vision. This is still
the key to the Mesoamerican living religious experience today.
Typically, the Spanish missionaries condemned nahualism, i.e. the idea of
instrument and the staff are much more than just
objects; they are to be understood as symbols with agency, i.e. as living beings.
These ceremonial elements are located in specific temples, such as a temple
surrounded by the Plumed Serpent. Below that temple we often see a dark
place, dedicated to the
, and Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 2009). 2 Stadsarchief Amsterdam [City Archive of Amsterdam] (abbreviated SAA), Archief Nederlands Hervormde Kerkenraad [Archive of Dutch Reformed Consistory] (PA 376), inv. no. 5, p. 157. 3 A. Eekhof, Jonas Michaëlius, Founder of the Church in New Netherland: His Life and
) experienced and reacted to the news of forcible removal across state lines in early-nineteenth-century America, with a particular emphasis on the theme of family separation as amotivating factor behind the actions and reactions of many bondspeople. It also seeks to formulate a middle ground in the decades
or sisters. On the contrary, he provided accurate information about a paternal uncle, named Gaspar Riveros, who was living in San Cristobal de La Havana, Cuba in the 1650s. His uncle “is sixty years old, he does not have any office and he is a knight of San Cristobal; he is married to a woman called
memorial to highlight that ‘the change from a very plentiful living on a farm highly improved to a wilderness in advanced life is really hard. ’ Ibid. AO 12/25, 373–81 (quoted p. 374); David Bell, Loyalist Rebellion in New Brunswick: A Defining Conflict for Canada’s Political Culture (Halifax, NS
negatively as the downside of Winthrop’s dilemma structuring the story, “the same large paradox that had troubled Winthrop from the beginning, the paradox that required a man to live in the world without being of it.” Running and managing the Company and the settlement, or living in the world, were both
as Mi’kmaqs. Subsisting on gathering, hunting, and marine life, these people had traded with European fishermen long before Cartier arrived in the early sixteenth century. Culturally adaptive, the Mi’kmaq enjoyed a fluid political system similar in some ways to both tribal and chiefdom structures
the case that a constitutional “agenda of equal representation,” as Nathan Kozuskanich has put it, motivated these backcountry settlers. 5 The manuscript “humble Petition” seems in its form to be a draft of the Remonstrance . But this “humble Petition,” by revealing the violent agenda covered over