when the chapel for Ramesses I at Abydos was being decorated, and to
a later one towards the end of Seti' s life during his alleged coregency
with Ramesses II.
Mysliwiec's treatment of Seti's later relief style, found at Abydos,
Gumah, KV 17 and the Karnak Hypostyle Hall, is masterful, but
deified, for he holds the
crook and flail in one hand and a mace in the other. Behind him Prince
Ramesses holds aloft a bw-fan behind his father that serves as a mark
both ofRamesses' status as a royal son and of Seti's divinity. 114 This
divine iconography is appropriate both for living and deceased
THE CITY AS METAPHOR IN THE WORKS OF
TWO PANOPOLITANS: SHENOUTE AND BESA*
A constant presence in the political and religious life of Late Antique Panopolis - and vice
versa - was the Monastery of Apa Shenoute across the Nile. 1 Real-life Panopolis and its
inhabitants though as
way, Cauville reaches the heart of the matter: Osiris, as the m˙w, floats—sus-
pended—between the two worlds of life and death, that is, outside the cycle of
12 Borghouts, Magical Texts, ix. Thoth’s rescue of Osiris makes up a “mythischen
Präzedenzfall,” Osing, Papyrus, 49.
Meritefnut should continue in life ( Ꜥnḫ ḥm.t-nṯr Mry.t-Tfnw.t ), followed immediately by a reference to Shepenwepet II as “living” ( Ꜥnḫ.tἰ ). If Meritefnut were the missing prenomen of Amenirdis II, then a co-tenure between her and Shepenwepet II appears unavoidable. Such an arrangement must not be
specific environment with flora, fauna, minerals, and human life represented, reinforce the documentary sense that the expedition leaders effectively reached a land different from any land in the ancient Egyptian imagination and expectation. However, notwithstanding the amount of details represented
exhibits figural and textual offerings on many subjects (religious, historical), in many media (carving, ink), and on a variety of canvasses (rock cliffs, temple walls).
Inscriptional content reveals that rock inscription carving was motivated by many different primary goals: they could serve as
immediately above the
representation of an animal is in fact its generic name and nothing
else (such as the name of the animal while it is engaged in certain
activities, or the name of the animal at a certain stage in its life), then
we may be justified in saying that the figure in our relief is an x, and
vessels of choice and “workhorses” of ancient Egypt.
So dominant was maritime life in the Egyptian worldview that the earth was imagined as floating on a universe of inert and dark primordial waters, known as nw or nwn . 15 It should not be surprising, then, that watercraft were an essential part of
point linking ancient Egypt with modern Europe. The economist Peter Temin assumes that “ordinary Romans lived well […] as a result of extensive markets” 24 and this allows him to suggest that the average standard of living in the Roman world was close to that of the 17th century Netherlands. 25 In