ogy, 131–153; Feldman, Hellenistic Judaism, 577–602.
2 Kasher, ‘Synagogues’; Gafni, ‘Synagogues in Babylonia’; idem, Jews of Babylonia,
109–116; idem, Land, Center and Diaspora, 56.
212 chapter seven
tions are motivated by economic benefit or profit. The discussion does
not provide a detailed
interpreted. Gen 2:7 is quoted in Leg. all. 1:31:
"And God fonned the man by taking day from the earth, and
breathed into his face a breath of life, and the man became aliving
soul" . (Kat mAaaEV 0 8~ tOV clv8pCll1tov xouv Mxpmv uno 't'i\e; "(i\e;,
lCat evecpUOTIoEV Eie; tO npooCll1tov autoU 7tVoitV
encounter a compendium of sayings cast as instructions from the wise sage, a rhetorical positioning that has the effect of coopting its various readers into the sage’s own students. His wise words touch on several aspects of life. Herein we find practical advice for all sorts of social interactions, but
throne, enjoying alife of eternal blessedness.
1 The author makes no claim that this text ever served as an actual epitaph.
Nevertheless, its form has sometimes been taken as proof of the existence of a
Jewish cult of the martyrs of Antioch: see Hadas 1953: n. ad lac. and van Henten
1994, and below
central problem in moral philosophy” in
W. D. Hudson, ed., The Is-Ought Question: A Collection of Papers on the Central Prob-
lem in Moral Philosophy (London: Macmillan, 1969). See also George Henrik Von
Wright, “Is and Ought,” in Man, Law and Modern Forms of Life (ed. Eugenio Bulygin
et al.; Dordrecht
work and in scattered
references throughout his writings, Josephus provides us with the basic
facts about his life. The bulk of his autobiography, as well as a substantial
portion of the War, is devoted to the brief period of time, from the fall of66
to the summer of67, when he served as a leader
Thucydides) or as various parts which form a symphonie ßV aWllcx (in
his tory , Herodotus). He later on compares history to aliving bodyl°.
But this metaphorical unity will be born only from astriet ordering and
laying out of historical events. With a view to this, the speeches must be
law which is later going to find its written expression in the Law
of Moses. Philo’s treatise De Abramo opens with the assertion that the
patriarchs are “living and rational laws” and concludes by recalling that
the life of Abraham “is this very law and unwritten code.”36 The
patriarchs—I am simplifying here a doctrine which is none too
historical context of its covenant, is emphatically negative about the contemporary generation and that of its predecessors. The covenanters saw themselves as a remnant living in a “period of wrath” which began with the destruction of the Temple, when God “hid his face from Israel” and which lasted down to
an offering was
only brought after corpse contamination play no special role in the story: the story just
happens to be about a penalty offering. Weiss Halivni may believe that the penalty offering
appears in the story because our shepherd brought a penalty offering in real life (see Weiss