entrepreneurial identity. By learning certain skills or a craft, people could distinguish themselves from their colleagues or competitors (distinctiveness), while simultaneously striving to become a member of a particular group (belonging), thereby guaranteeing job security and a certain standard of living. 1 In
It is a truism to say that change is a fundamental characteristic of human life. Any living law has to cope with the relationship between the law as it stands and developing and new conditions. The problem for Roman law in the Middle Ages dramatically illustrated the tensions between permanence
be lived out by men and women. The real-life practice of ‘romantic love’ first emerged as an experiment in bourgeois and intellectual circles. But it was an experiment that shone far beyond, offering a basis for the criticism of marriage as well as for alternative societal models, and it can still be
degrees of blood and affinal kinship. The issue of who was counted among one’s kin in everyday life from a personal perspective, however – for example, when deciding whom to invite to a wedding or inform about a death in the family – could involve an entirely different logic.
Individual disciplines and
single whole (as a synonym of the res publica , the “commonwealth”, and the bonum commune ) was a commonplace in the urban republicanism of the seventeenth century. 22 Its ideals were not restricted to political life, but they permeated everyday life and were completely interwoven with the concept of
predecessor Thomas Arnold with the idea of the unity of history and heralded it as ‘the truth which ought to be the centre and life of all our historic studies’.
As a concession to the ‘imperfect world’ in which he found himself at Oxford, to be sure, he defined ‘modern’ history for practical purposes
nation is living an independent life or has to submit to conquest, etc.
p . vinogradoff , Outlines of Historical Jurisprudence (1920)
Across epochs and peoples, legal thinkers have just as easily made recourse to principle at the earliest apprehension of a novel situation. In legal thought
of law. A permanent international court could serve the same purpose for the rest of the world. The United States was the living proof that the judicial settlement of disputes between sovereign States was not only possible, but was the definitive means to avoid the resort to war. Scott
of law. I side with those who appreciate a non-anachronistic reading of early modern writing. 7 The fact that an idea at the time was not couched in particular terms, does not mean the idea as such did not exist.
My writing of this Grotian history is motivated first by the wish to contribute to
life there seem highly unattractive. Such factors included long distances to neighbouring communities, the long way to church and a community accessible only by foot or situated in a gorge, near Alpine pastures or glaciers. This was combined with complaints about the raw climate, long winters