colony’s population. the historical record indicates that negerhollands
began to vernacularize about 1688 when survival rates increased for afri-
cans living in mixed households. By 1700, they and their descendants had
created negerhollands—a new language that encoded the identity of the
, skin, life, live, living, alive’.
occurs in the compounds alif (s.) ‘alive’ and liftit (d.), ‘lifetime’.
(s)ex. mi a ha en menši,. . . mi frɛn, di regun mi di wɛn a ste ši duku fam
bo ši lif liste am nakun, nakun, nakun, nakun.
ex. di frou a se am, am lo lo ma di le fo am.
ex. an wani am a waku, am a
colonized and exploited territories
ranged from noble to ignoble. however, as in modern times, there was a
decided preference for the aberrant and the astonishing (hodgen 1964,
meek 1976). motivated by curiosity and avarice, and empowered by their
developing capacity for ocean travel, renaissance
english also reveals that learners perceived as native-like were also highly
although much less frequently reported in the literature, investment
for instrumental purposes (i.e., learning to achieve a goal regardless of
one’s feelings about the native speaker community) also leads to
Deploying linguistiC resourCes
in front dog, ‘tis Mr. Dog; behind ‘tis dog. (Virgin islands proverb)
the world view that motivated european colonial expansion was pow-
erful, and restrictions on those they enslaved were enforced with death
) religious and cultural life.
Intermarriage and the “Tamil Bias”
Living in close proximity and sharing a demanding devotional culture was
conducive to intermarriage between the Moors and the Malays, regardless
of frequently divergent occupational paths. In the earliest period, a poor
ratio of male to female
longer an authentic expression
of the authentic, but only a marketing tool. Here prevails a logic of improvisa-
tion based on repetitive (though, sometimes, creative) use of practical formu-
las (clichés) and schemes that guide the way in which people cope with the
difficulties of everyday life. In the
. Léglise, B. Migge, and P.B. Tjon Sie Fat, eds. 2014. In and Out of Suriname:
Language, Mobility and Identity. Leiden: Brill.
CRABASI. 2008. Surinam Maroon Tembe: A Means of Living. Paramaribo: CRABASI
Doat, P., D. Schneegans, and G. Schneegans. 1999. Guyane: L’art Businengé. Grenoble
describe these nom markers as classifiers since they are semantically motivated expressions, originating in nouns, which assign nouns to a specific semantic class: ([+animate, +human] versus [+animate, -human]). Moreover, they are not obligatory, so these only modify nouns when the speaker specifies
in Senegal’s Lower Casamance. The first paradox pertains
to the contrast between cultural homogeneity and linguistic heterogeneity:
throughout the area, cultural practices are convergent to a large extent. Where
they exhibit differences, these are not motivated by ethnic divisions but by