referred to as tantric - keep
70 DANIEL GOLD
an eye on salvation but also cultivate powers useful in this world; and living in
the world traditionally entails family life. Nath traditions are part of this larger
tantric milieu and are thus able to embrace both renouncers and family men. As
untouched by the utilitarian character of daily living in
real life; “playing may serve as relaxation from work, as a sort of
tonic inasmuch as it affords repose to the soul” (Huizinga, 1949:161).
Play is an end in itself and serves no other purpose than personal
enjoyment and relaxation. It does not
cultures. We can solve our
problems through the use of our own values and institutions ... I am not ashamed of
my poverty and simple living. I have a sense of contentment and satisfaction in my
life ... I resent the identification of modernization with westernization ... and I am opposed
to both the
symptoms of its
fission under the impact of economic factors like poverty and over-crowding. How
ever small, there is a minimum of living space per person necessary for harmonious
family life. When an extended family reaches a point where such a minimum is not
available, tensions and conflicts are
living with the family.
Both parents had migrated from villages in Shantou (Swatow),
Guangdong Province, China, in 1947: the mother (hereafter called
Mother) was then 12 years old and the father (Father), a 19-year-old
orphan. Several years after arriving in Thailand, Father had
attachment (riiga) while suicide is motivated and
accompanied by passion. 88 However, not all were allowed to choose Samiidhi
death at any stage of life. There were rules to admit or to deny this privilege to the
54 Ibid.• t.
55 Ibid.• 14.
56 Ibid.• 30.
57 Ibid.• 86.
S8 Ibid.• 121.
59 Ibid.• 81 and 136.
occasions, it is obligatory that a daughter or a sister living outside the village
should be invited personally and then escorted back personally. Nag Panchami
(the snake Worship Festival), Deepava/i (the festival of Lights) and Gauri Hunnime
(the Festival of goddess Gauri), the child-naming ceremony
of the late Indian philosopher, artist and guru Prabhat
Rafijan Sarkar. As a guru Sarkar's discourse primarily speaks to the yogi, and his
life tells of a commitment to the transformation of individuals and attainment of the
absolute self (paramatman). However Sarkar, unlike conventional gurus
organization shows a division into pariah and host groups,
then this is a division produced in everyday life; in their daily deal-
ings, pariah and host people must classify each other into different
groups and then treat each other in accordance with the dictates of
their classification (McDermott, 1974: 88
, while not everything is to be believed, so too not
all is to be discarded.
The earliest major description of Madurai appears in the Maturaikkiiiici,
dated ca. 215 C.E. 10 In this 782 line poem of "advice" or "counsel" to the
Pandyan king at Madurai comes a graphic description of city life at five