that motivated so many young people to protest. The biographical in this sense refers to a linear narrative of alife, where an individual is born ‘free’ according to the legislated promise made at the end of apartheid. As the story goes, this young and ‘free’ South African comes to recognize the
hostility which can motivate them to engage in deviant and criminal behaviours ( Stiles, Liu and Kaplan, 2000 : 64). Morenoff, Sampson and Raudenbush ( 2001 : 518) opined that neighborhood-level income inequality is a significant predictor of the neighbourhood crime rate. A sharp contrast between the rich
of returning to Somaliland for many years in order to reconnect with her country of birth and relatives still living there, with whom she and her family had remained in close contact over the years, mostly through phone calls and remitting financial support on a monthly basis. She wished to see her
war between the
two countries (Tekeste and Tronvoll 2000). So, in a way, borders have
haunted me as a researcher all my life.
In the Horn, borders have been haunting people for a long time.
In the past fifteen years or so, the region of the Horn has witnessed
. Von Bertalanffy believed that all things, whether living or non-living, could be regarded as systems ( Joshua and Olanrewaju, 2016 , 61). It focuses attention on the whole system and also gives awareness to the relationships among its fundamental parts. On the basis of this, he drew a contrast between
towards violence among members of the
National education, Health and Allied Workers Union (NeHAWU), the case
study suggests a greater disposition towards violence. This tension does point
to the difficulty of using opinion surveys for understanding real-life actions.
The 2007 strike, in contrast to
Nigeria In 2012
the Federal Polytechnic in Mubi. While alleged Boko Haram mem-
bers denied any involvement, there were indications that the kill-
ings might have been motivated by a serious feud inside the college.
In what seemed to be an act of reprisal, 24 villagers in Dogon-Dawa
in Birnin Gwari local
.5%, in practice this meant
that 300 m Africans were still living on less than $ 1 a day. More than 600 m people
were still without electricity but, while 80% of Africa’s poor continued to be active
in agriculture, real growth was taking place in other sectors.
A more buoyant note was struck by an AfDB
-blind; hence education is open to all,
irrespective of sex. According to one informant:
Islam regards education as a tool and basis for everything in life and [the]
basis for development, survival in this world and the hereafter. Islam places
very high importance on education, the first revelation of the
, but many opposition groups had boycotted the Council, alleging government dom-
inance. As a result, appraisal of the reforms had been ambivalent.
Critics put the senate issue at the top of their list of grievances against the government.
As public anger over the cost of living and inadequate