that motivated so many young people to protest. The biographical in this sense refers to a linear narrative of alife, where an individual is born ‘free’ according to the legislated promise made at the end of apartheid. As the story goes, this young and ‘free’ South African comes to recognize the
hostility which can motivate them to engage in deviant and criminal behaviours ( Stiles, Liu and Kaplan, 2000 : 64). Morenoff, Sampson and Raudenbush ( 2001 : 518) opined that neighborhood-level income inequality is a significant predictor of the neighbourhood crime rate. A sharp contrast between the rich
later served as a minis-
ter in three cabinets until his retirement in 2005 – on 21 November
published an open appeal for tolerance and respect in the state-
owned daily newspaper ‘New Era’. He wrote: “We are living in new
times that require new ways of conducting political struggle. The
of returning to Somaliland for many years in order to reconnect with her country of birth and relatives still living there, with whom she and her family had remained in close contact over the years, mostly through phone calls and remitting financial support on a monthly basis. She wished to see her
destitution. A further
19.3% of the population were classified as close to multiple poverty.
This means that almost two-thirds of the population were living
in multiple poverty. Average life expectancy was 64.8 years (62 for
men and 67.3 for women). This represented a gradual increase in
170 Namibia in
war between the
two countries (Tekeste and Tronvoll 2000). So, in a way, borders have
haunted me as a researcher all my life.
In the Horn, borders have been haunting people for a long time.
In the past fifteen years or so, the region of the Horn has witnessed
. Von Bertalanffy believed that all things, whether living or non-living, could be regarded as systems ( Joshua and Olanrewaju, 2016 , 61). It focuses attention on the whole system and also gives awareness to the relationships among its fundamental parts. On the basis of this, he drew a contrast between
the Supreme Court.
Politically motivated violence, though not at the pre-GNU levels,
was reported in parts of the country. On 31 March, the Zimbabwe
Peace Project (ZPP), a violence-monitoring group, reported an up-
swing in violence in the previous month. It linked this to Mugabe’s
towards violence among members of the
National education, Health and Allied Workers Union (NeHAWU), the case
study suggests a greater disposition towards violence. This tension does point
to the difficulty of using opinion surveys for understanding real-life actions.
The 2007 strike, in contrast to
Nigeria In 2012
the Federal Polytechnic in Mubi. While alleged Boko Haram mem-
bers denied any involvement, there were indications that the kill-
ings might have been motivated by a serious feud inside the college.
In what seemed to be an act of reprisal, 24 villagers in Dogon-Dawa
in Birnin Gwari local