suprastructure. Today, thinkers do not employ a tradition-
al metaphysical scheme of composition because they refuse any objectifi-
cation of the spiritual element in the person, much in the same manner as there
is no longer any appeal to 'life' as the explanatory principle for what is living.
more encompassing than pleasure which entails a
more punctual or temporary satisfaction. Where the phrase 'to be happy'
evokes a joy about life itself, that expansively radiates in all of one's projects,
pleasure, in contrast, seems to remain close to the dynamism that generates it.
, and, by doing so,
develop the experience of aliving community. The bread and wine fulfill a
second symbolic value as well. In them, we witness an ascending movement.
It is necessary first for the participants to express their experiences of life in
its depths and to form a communal bond among
maxim which announces the task of the ego. It can
only become what it must in assuming its pulsional life and its unconscious
representations. If they are opposed at this level, in virtue of perhaps a false
spiritualism, the ego will cut itself off from its own living forces and exhaust
itself in a
various Greek philosophies where human beings, in both
their conscious life and organic existence, are a part of nature and therefore,
submissive to the laws which regulate the order of nature.6 Even in the
psychological studies of Aristotle, nature is part of an individual's natural
information, (4) able to act in the human world in detectable ways and (5) capable of motivating behaviors that reinforce belief. Th at Santa Claus appears to be only inconsistently represented as having all ﬁve requisite features Santa has failed to develop a community of true believers and cult
life as well.
In the work of Heraclitus, a later thinker, the value is on the ever-changing
elements which make up living. One element of this is his conception of time,
which is fluid. This conception of time is based on the way time is lived and
felt. It is not based on an abstraction formed from
"neither human society nor human history can be
understood without taking into account the very different ways a society can
use pain or pleasure to motivate human behavior."2 Eisler says she "began to
see the central, though amazingly ignored, role pain and pleasure have had in
the evolution of
RA: I understand that you came to formulate your theory of creativity in the course of articulating your personal program in art. Am I right? Michael: Not quite. I’d been thinking about creativity in connection with the idea of a creative life, particularly when facing choices about whether to
Being rescued from alife-threatening situation is an act of highest
value to the rescued person. Receiving a compliment on a job well done or
having a door held open are also valued experiences but to a much lesser
degree . On another axis, complimenting someone or holding a door for