overwhelmingly in the legal context of the Torah (for detailed studies see Houten 1999; Ramírez Kidd 1999). We can note that it has two primary referents: a) an Israelite living among foreigners, by which image the time in Egypt is remembered or b) a non-Israelite living among the sons of Israel. Considering
subservience to authority.
Ideological circumcision and ideological uncircumcision both keep peo-
ple in a state where they are vulnerable prey for demagogues and rogues.
They march in step with each other, like a prisoner falling in step with
What is motivating these people towards rejecting
being an individualistic and pri-
vate matter, however, it is lived out in the community of faith and the
harmony of the community as a primary goal. Christian ethics is not
principally 'an individualistic ... brand of personal holiness'. On the
contrary, it concerns living the Spirit-filled life 'in
flesh to “eat and
devour one another” (v. 15). If a distinction is to be made at all, it
would be between those who are in fact already living by the
imperatives in vv. 16, 18, 22-23, and 25, as over against those who are
responsible for the works of the flesh that are disrupting the life of the
? Is complaint against God ever le-
gitimate? How does complaint differ from lament? What is God’s re-
sponse to those who complain? How can a believer maintain a faithful
life in prolonged times of waiting, even when it seems that God has
forgotten his promises? And finally, is the church being
:59 makes Moses the son of Jochebed, who is married to her own tather Levi.
37 Women, p. 19.
38 F. J. H. Letters, The Life and Work of Sophocles (New York: Sheed & Ward 1953),
224, quoting Oe Quincey.
39 Athenaeus 10.4568 (44~59 is a treasury of riddles) and other sources quoted by
way of life was fundamentally questioned in the context of the reform instigated by Antiochus. For Judaism to relatable to the surrounding world and fit Hellenistic customs, certain changes were necessary. A distinguished openness to the outside was especially necessary for the worldwide acceptance of
) In a complementary thought, the second offense
highlights how cheaply human life was being treated. ‘A pair of sandals’
could refer to the paltry value assigned to the poor, the meager price of
bribes taken by corrupt judges, or the trivial amount of debt for which
the poor were being sold into
First, it is clear that doubts about Paul's narrative and its implications are
motivated by a desire to defend the historicity of Acts13• In the parallel
account of Acts 9,23-25, there is no mention of the ethnarch of Aretas, or
of the watch he kept over Damascus, or of his attempt to arrest
realignment or new direction in life should already be evident from
the personal reflection. Make a commitment to God to live faithful to
that insight. As you determine God’s will for your life, ask forgiveness
for past wrongs and seek God’s empowerment for godly living. Write
out what you plan to do as a