overwhelmingly in the legal context of the Torah (for detailed studies see Houten 1999; Ramírez Kidd 1999). We can note that it has two primary referents: a) an Israelite living among foreigners, by which image the time in Egypt is remembered or b) a non-Israelite living among the sons of Israel. Considering
subservience to authority.
Ideological circumcision and ideological uncircumcision both keep peo-
ple in a state where they are vulnerable prey for demagogues and rogues.
They march in step with each other, like a prisoner falling in step with
What is motivating these people towards rejecting
could speak Greek. It seems plausible that, as a skilled construction worker from Nazareth, he earned the family’s living probably at Sepphoris, first together with Joseph and independently after Joseph’s death. Sepphoris was a Hellenistic town near Nazareth and thus provided a setting in which Jesus
may offer pleasing sacrifices to the God of heaven [ לאלה שמיא ], and pray for the life of the king and his children …  May the God who has established his name there [ ואלהא די שכן שמה תמה ] overthrow any king or people that shall put forth a hand to alter this, or to destroy this house of God
Noah preserves the title אלהא and the term עליונין . The first occurs in 4QBirth of Noah a ,
 [Al]l their designs against him will fail, and the array (?) of all living things will be great  […] his purposes because he is the chosen one of God ( בחיר אלהא הוא ). His birth and the spirit
preserved do not meticulously follow an ideal-typical theory but occasionally deviate from it. A letter is basically characterized by the fact that it emerges from a certain situation in everyday life and is connected to the personal situation of the sender and to that of the recipient. The discrepancy
being an individualistic and pri-
vate matter, however, it is lived out in the community of faith and the
harmony of the community as a primary goal. Christian ethics is not
principally 'an individualistic ... brand of personal holiness'. On the
contrary, it concerns living the Spirit-filled life 'in
flesh to “eat and
devour one another” (v. 15). If a distinction is to be made at all, it
would be between those who are in fact already living by the
imperatives in vv. 16, 18, 22-23, and 25, as over against those who are
responsible for the works of the flesh that are disrupting the life of the
? Is complaint against God ever le-
gitimate? How does complaint differ from lament? What is God’s re-
sponse to those who complain? How can a believer maintain a faithful
life in prolonged times of waiting, even when it seems that God has
forgotten his promises? And finally, is the church being
:59 makes Moses the son of Jochebed, who is married to her own tather Levi.
37 Women, p. 19.
38 F. J. H. Letters, The Life and Work of Sophocles (New York: Sheed & Ward 1953),
224, quoting Oe Quincey.
39 Athenaeus 10.4568 (44~59 is a treasury of riddles) and other sources quoted by