AMOUSIA: LIVING WITHOUT THE MUSES*
Without music life would be a mistake: ‘Ohne Musik wäre das Leben ein
Irrthum’. So, famously, wrote Friedrich Nietzsche in the first section (‘Max-
ims and Arrows’) of Twilight of the Idols.1 As always, Nietzsche had
concluded that ltJVX~ at this early period meant virtually
"life", thus protecting early Greek epic from the possible accusation of fos-
tering belief in a double which survives death and can therefore have an
effect upon the world of the living. He saw cpp~v/cppEvEc;, 0uµ6c;, ~Top, K~p,
and Kpa81ri as
living are out-
weighed by the corresponding disadvantages.40 Seneca presents himself as
readily resorting to such a process of calculation, in considering whether
life continues to be worth living in the face of the physical and mental
afflictions of old age (epist. 58.34f.). The term ratio, in the
publicity, were not always positive and Panhellenic. Although
not as politically significant as war or economics, athletics nonetheless formed
a historical factor worthy of consideration in Greek political life. 1 At Athens
gymnastic and equestrian competition was a visible, prestigious activity, and
point of saying, as Aristotle
does, that eudaimonia is self-sufficient, not in the sense that one living such
alife does not need outside attachments, or in the sense that one lacks noth-
ing one could want, but rather in the sense that eudaimonia requires having
enough of what one needs for
bottom line, so the Parmenides
suggests, is that what remains should allow, or enable, alife to be worth
Parmenides states (135b5-c2) that one who does not grant that there are
Forms will have nowhere to turn his thought and will thus altogether de-
stroy the power of discourse ($ ). It has
Gerhard, above n. I, 140 ff.
CALLIMACHUS AND OTHER HELLENISTIC IAMBI 67
choliambic poem like the first anonymous fragment, but it soon
becomes clear that the situation which motivated Callimachus'
poem is a homosexual relationship-a feature of the corrupt present
which is castigated in the third
badly with livinga plea-
sant or an unpleasant life also supplies Socrates with a starting point
for arguing that - just like holiness, justice and temperance - courage
too is a form of knowledge. After having endeavoured to identify
courage and knowledge by way of a cumbrous proof, against the
133 mm high in males (ll0 in females)
92 F.S. Bodenheimer (1935) Animal Life in Palestine (Jerusalem: 1935) 460.
9' T.E.Lawlor (1976) Handbook to the Orders and Families of Living Mam-
mals (Eureka CA: 1976) 205.
94 Tomilin (1967) 466-515, 523, 574-92.
95 Coffey ( 1971).
ESTABLISHING A CONCEPTUAL
well; but in order really to be what they are, viz. living and life-giving
rational principles on lower levels of ontology, their consciousness and
inner life have to turn back to the source and become aware, somehow,
of the rich world of archetypes in Intellect.
To illustrate the point by a