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"S is such a severe distortion that it is profoundly misleading. Many TABLE 34 Cost of Water Transport in the Early 1930s (yuan per metric ton-km) Junks moving upstream Junks on canals Boats on lower Yangtze Coasting steamers Junks in Kiangsu Steamers in Kiangsu 0.022 0.019 0.020 0.024 0

In: The Dragon and the Iron Horse
Tones are the most challenging aspect of learning Chinese pronunciation for adult learners and traditional research mostly attributes tonal errors to interference from learners’ native languages. In Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones, Hang Zhang offers a series of cross-linguistic studies to argue that there are factors influencing tone acquisition that extend beyond the transfer of structures from learners’ first languages, and beyond characteristics extracted from Chinese. These factors include universal phonetic and phonological constraints as well as pedagogical issues. By examining non-native Chinese tone productions made by speakers of non-tonal languages (English, Japanese, and Korean), this book brings together theory and practice and uses the theoretical insights to provide concrete suggestions for teachers and learners of Chinese.

the characteristics of regional higher education systems and in university governance within these systems. 4 There is growing acceptance of the relativity of such systems and the ways they are shaped by regional cultures and, specifically, by changing theories of government and the role of the State

In: International Journal of Chinese Education