context and paving the way for an exploration of their encounter with European culture. He was among the first scholars in the 1970s and 1980s to explore the Nahḍa (cultural renaissance) that took place in the Arab Middle East during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Nahḍa was an
Introduction “Gay Free Zone”: in February 2011 street stickers appeared in the East London areas of Tower Hamlets and Hackney which condemned the ‘sins’ of homosexuality and warned of ‘Allah’s punishment’ (Roberts 2011). There was a universal outrage in the London press and media, not to mention in
particular historical contexts. The determining factor that stands above the others is the Cold War context – which is worth recalling more than a quarter of a century after the fall of the Iron Curtain. From 1945 to 1989, Europe was divided between West and East, that is, between two economies, political
-changing differences where
each time a new element appears the whole of the ‘commons’ itself re-con-
figures. (Sarat Maharaj. Fatal Natalities in Faultlines. Africa Pavilion.
Venice Biennale 2003 and the network of Raqs Media Collective.New
0022 This shows up the limits of the ‘plane of tolerance