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ram groups to gain antipredator advantages (Ruckstuhl & Festa-Bianchet, 2001). While changes in group membership can impact activity budgets and alter foraging efficiency, natural selection and optimality theory would pre- dict that any disadvantages resulting from joining a particular group would, on

In: Behaviour

, to permit the identification or testing of meaningful optimality predictions (ZACH & SMITH, 1981). Spatial relationships of highly conspicuous central place foragers like gulls appear to be one context where relevant optimized quantities can be identified and assessed. The main weakness of optimality

In: Behaviour

Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa) (Accepted: 23 March 2010) Summary Optimality theory suggests that territorial scent marks are under selective pressure through the information they provide about competitive quality/reproductive status and so should be situated to

In: Behaviour

: 633-648. Røskaft, E. & Moksnes, A. (1998). Coevolution between brood parasites and their hosts: an optimality theory approach. — In: Parasitic birds and their hosts: studies in coevolution (Rothstein, S.I. & Robinson, S.K., eds). Oxford University Press, New York, NY, p. 236- 254. A. Zölei et al

In: Behaviour

due to limited endurance (Bennett, 1980). If optimality theory is to account for escape behaviour by ectotherms, it must be able to incorporate temperature-dependent choices between alter- native escape tactics. The possibility of simultaneous effects of temperature on two or more factors affecting

In: Behaviour

: An optimality theory approach. — In: Parasitic birds and their hosts; Studies in coevolution (S.I. Rothstein & S.K. Robinson, eds). Oxford Univeristy Press, New York, Oxford, p. 236-254. — —, — —, Meilvang, D., Bicík, V., Jemelíková, J. & Honza, M. (2002b). No evidence for recognition errors in

In: Behaviour

and their hosts: an optimality theory approach. — In: Parasitic birds and their hosts, studies in coevolution (S.I. Rothstein & S.K. Robinson, eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 236-254. — —, — —, Meilvang, D., Bicík, V., Jemelíková, J. & Honza, M. (2002a). No evidence for recognition errors in

In: Behaviour

and their hosts. An optimality theory approach. — In: Parasitic birds and their hosts: studies in coevolution (Rothstein, S.I. & Robinson, S.K., eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 236-254. Rothstein, S.I. (1975). Mechanisms of avian egg-recognition: do birds know their own eggs? — Anim. Behav

In: Behaviour

well as the shells’ attributes, influence the decision in different directions (e.g., growth necessitates shells with large IV/W ratios, but these may be too thin and brittle; Osorno et al., 2005); hence optimality theory (Krebs & Kacelnik, 1991; Kacelnik, 2006) should provide best framework to study

In: Behaviour

analysis, presumably because this would threaten the basic assumptions of optimality theory itself (for discussion see MAYNARD SMITH, 1978). How can we test whether a given behaviour is optimal or not? First, the terms adaptive and optimal should be defined at least preliminarily. According to SIH (1980

In: Behaviour