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Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

equates the Arabic names of the three “parts” above with i‘tiqadat, ‘ibadat , and mu‘amelat . 27 The first term, i‘tiqadat , comes from the same Arabic root as al-Nasafi’s title, ‘Aqa’id , both terms signifying matters of faith and belief. ‘Ibadat is the normal term for the obligatory acts of

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

the origins of the Quraysh, the tribe of Muhammad, and adding to his genealogy the succession to leadership in the Muslim community. As noted, the belief that Selim I acquired the caliphate upon the conquest of Cairo in 1517 is wrong as history. As Ottoman dynastic propaganda, however, the

Series:

Lotte Hellinga

Laurentius fuerat usus, prodisse in lucem certum est Alexandri Galli doctrinale, quae Grammatica celeberrimo tunc in usu erat, cum Petri Hispani tractatibus …’ 29 The work of recent decades has developed insights which may help to reconcile these traditionally opposed beliefs about the origin of printing

Series:

Lotte Hellinga

balance of probabilities favours supporting Husung’s belief that the two snippets are part of a planning exercise – or as he put it, ‘a survey, or reconnaissance into materials that to some extent do not belong together as subject matter’. 61 However, this notion is challenged by the surviving leaves of

Series:

Lotte Hellinga

– unfortunately based on the premise that BnF ms. fr. 5524 is its only source and, moreover, in the mistaken belief that this part of the volume as now bound was compiled by Jean Grolier and Jean Lhuillier. In fact, Grolier and Lhuillier were the compilers of the first section of the codex with the title

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

state, and his themes follow accordingly. Islam is a rational religion. He began by defining Islamic belief from the authoritative source of al-Nasafi’s treatise on dogmatics. He then developed the requirements of ritual observance and behavioral ethics on the basis of al-Halabi’s Multaqa . D

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

of the spectrum, it was true of the unruly, wandering dervishes ( kalender ) who took advantage of the credulity of the masses. Yet the brotherhoods also had supporters. Moreover, widespread belief held that there was always a hierarchy of 356 saints existing invisibly, the “help of the world

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

actual lack of authoritative basis for the belief. 17 D’Ohsson began by explaining that the sultans were almost the only people who allowed themselves to be painted. Shortly after his accession, each sultan had his portrait painted in oil on card stock and added to the album containing his predecessors

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

food and drink, to dress, and personal ethics. 50 As for Mouradgea’s reasons for structuring his “religious code” in this way, it would have matched what his ulema tutors understood as ilm-i hal . Literally, “knowledge of the situation,” the term referred to the basic religious beliefs, practices, and

Series:

Lotte Hellinga

balance of probabilities favours supporting Husung’s belief that the two snippets are part of a planning exercise – or as he put it, ‘a survey, or reconnaissance into materials that to some extent do not belong together as subject matter’. 61 However, this notion is challenged by the surviving leaves of