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Carter Vaughn Findley

equates the Arabic names of the three “parts” above with i‘tiqadat, ‘ibadat , and mu‘amelat . 27 The first term, i‘tiqadat , comes from the same Arabic root as al-Nasafi’s title, ‘Aqa’id , both terms signifying matters of faith and belief. ‘Ibadat is the normal term for the obligatory acts of

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

the origins of the Quraysh, the tribe of Muhammad, and adding to his genealogy the succession to leadership in the Muslim community. As noted, the belief that Selim I acquired the caliphate upon the conquest of Cairo in 1517 is wrong as history. As Ottoman dynastic propaganda, however, the

Gil Pasternak and Marta Ziętkiewicz

among equals. They desired to keep alive the story of the Jewish past and maintain the culture and folklore of their own people. But they wished to do so without detracting from the value of any other historical narrative, belief, or cultural tradition and without assuming any exemption from the duties

Eugeny Kotlyar

the practice of running a closed book through with a needle and then saying which words have been pierced on each page; see Paperno, “ Iz Nikolaevskoy epohi ,” 51. 59 As per the belief that in every generation some secret thirty-six (hence the gimatriya- based appellation of lamed-vovnik ) righteous

Shelly Zer-Zion

performance? Performance, argues Diana Taylor, is a cultural mode that exists not only within the framework of the theater but also in everyday life. It is constituted by scenarios exhibiting symbolic behavioral practices, thus capturing cultural traditions, ceremonies, and beliefs. These scenarios are taught

Urmila Mohan

1976: 109). Hence the belief that a South Asian’s moral qualities are “altered by the changes in his body resulting from eating certain foods, engaging in certain kinds of sexual intercourse, taking part in certain ceremonies, or falling under certain other kinds of influence” (Marriott and Inden 1977

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

state, and his themes follow accordingly. Islam is a rational religion. He began by defining Islamic belief from the authoritative source of al-Nasafi’s treatise on dogmatics. He then developed the requirements of ritual observance and behavioral ethics on the basis of al-Halabi’s Multaqa . D

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

of the spectrum, it was true of the unruly, wandering dervishes ( kalender ) who took advantage of the credulity of the masses. Yet the brotherhoods also had supporters. Moreover, widespread belief held that there was always a hierarchy of 356 saints existing invisibly, the “help of the world

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

actual lack of authoritative basis for the belief. 17 D’Ohsson began by explaining that the sultans were almost the only people who allowed themselves to be painted. Shortly after his accession, each sultan had his portrait painted in oil on card stock and added to the album containing his predecessors

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

food and drink, to dress, and personal ethics. 50 As for Mouradgea’s reasons for structuring his “religious code” in this way, it would have matched what his ulema tutors understood as ilm-i hal . Literally, “knowledge of the situation,” the term referred to the basic religious beliefs, practices, and