This paper describes five species of dicotyledonous fossil wood from the lower Oligocene Tsuyazaki Formation in Tsuyazaki, Fukuoka Prefecture, northern Kyushu: Rhus palaeojavanica (Anacardiaceae), Alnus scalariforme (Betulaceae), Hamamelis prejaponica (Hamamelidaceae), Magnoliaceoxylon palaeogenica (Magnoliaceae) and Sonneratia kyushuensis (Sonneratiaceae). This brings the number of species described from the Tsuyazaki locality to 19. Among these 19 species modern equivalents of all species, except for Sonneratia, occur in temperate to subtropical forests. Sonneratia is found today in mangrove vegetation of tropical to subtropical regions. The presence of Sonneratia may suggest a warmer climate in Kyushu during the early Oligocene.
Silicified woods from the lower Miocene Yanagida Formation were collected from two sites, Mawaki and Uchiura, in the northeastern Noto Peninsula, central Japan. Among 80 specimens, 15 species representing 13 families were identified, including six new species: Torreya mioxyla (Taxaceae), Castanopsis uchiuraensis (Fagaceae), Camellia japonoxyla (Theaceae), Stewartia notoensis (Theaceae), Distylium chiharu-hirayae (Hamamelidaceae) and Aesculus mioxyla (Hippocastanaceae). The fossil wood floras from these two sites contain evergreen and deciduous dicotyledons and have a similar composition. These floras are compared to the fossil wood flora from Monzen and to the Daijima-type compression fossil flora. The composition of the fossil wood floras of Mawaki and Uchiura suggests they represent a mixed mesic forest of conifers, deciduous dicotyledons and evergreen dicotyledons.
Three types of fossil woods with similarities to the Leguminosae are described, Mimosoxylon tenax (Felix) Müller-Stoll ' Mädel, Bajacalijomioxylon cienense Cevallos-Ferriz ' Barajas-Morales, gen. et sp. nov., and Copaijeroxylon matanzensis Cevallos-Ferriz ' Barajas-Morales, sp. nov. These woods are from the EI Cien Formation in Baja California Sur, Mexico, which is dated as Zemorrian-Saucesian, i.e., late Oligocene–early Miocene. Although two of the names of the fossil woods suggest affinity with a particular extant taxon, differences in some quantitative and qualitative features preclude their identification with a single extant taxon. The similarity among wood of some groups of extant Leguminosae and limited knowledge of character variability in woods of this family explains this taxonomie uncertainty. These fossil woods from Baja California underscore the need for an extensive systematic study of the wood anatomy of Leguminosae, add to the poorly known plant history of the Peninsula, suggest a tropical South American influence in the fossil flora of Baja Califomia, and indicate that the climate during the Zemorrian- Saucesian was different from the xeric conditions that prevail today in the area.
A detailed analysis of selected quantitative features was made of secondary xylem from the trunk, branch, and root of a specimen of Robinia pseudoacacia L. The analysis serves as a basis for interpreting two suites of fossil woods closely similar to the wood of Robinia. One assemblage had its provenance in western Nevada and the other in southern California. Results of the survey show considerable overlap in ranges of variation in the fossils and extant woods. These findings parallel results of a similar investigation by Matten et al. (1977). Woods from both fossil localities fall within the specifications of the organ species Robinia zirkellii (Platen) Matten, Gastaldo ' Lee. The survey also revealed the kinds of differences that may be found in species of Robinia growing in dissimilar habitats. Differences noted among trunk, branch and root wood of extant Robinia make it possible to distinguish these organs among the fossils.
Tepexi de Rodríguez in Puebla ( Ramírez et al . 2000 ; Ramírez & Cevallos-Ferriz 2002 ). The record of anacardiaceous fossilwoods is rich, with approximately 78 wood types reported worldwide ( e.g. , Awasthi 1966 ; Gregory et al . 2009 ). The majority of the records are from Cenozoic sediments of
, habitats (van Welzen 2016 ). Bischofia polycarpa Airy-Shaw is restricted to evergreen mountain forests of eastern and southern China. Both species are widely cultivated, and their timber is used commercially ( Li & Gilbert 2008 ). Fossilwoods that resemble extant Bischofia have been extensively
et al. 2010 ), Malvaceae ( Rodriguez-Reyes et al. 2014 ), Chrysobalanaceae ( Jud et al. 2016 ), Calophyllaceae ( Nelson & Jud , in press), and Fabaceae (Rodriguez-Reyes et al., under review). In the present paper we describe a new fossilwood type from the Miocene of Panama, which further
A simple, rapid and non-destructive technique used for preparing coal and kerogen samples was adapted for use with calcified fossil wood. The technique involves embedding samples in resin, polishing their surfaces and observing them using fluorescence microscopy.
The fossil woods and leaves of the Fossil Forest Piedra Chamana represent a diverse assemblage of plants dating to 39 Ma (late Middle Eocene). The fossils are preserved in an ashfall and overlying lahar deposits near the small village of Sexi in the northern Peruvian Andes (central Cajamarca). The assemblage includes dicot wood types and leaf morphotypes, as well as a diversity of monocot material. The ~30 dicot wood types are referred to the families Acanthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Combretaceae, Cordiaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lechythidaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Melastomataceae, Muntingiaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae. Described herein are descriptions of the first 17 wood types that have been assigned to the families Acanthaceae through Lythraceae; descriptions of the additional wood types will appear in a later paper. The paleovegetation can be characterized as lowland tropical forest with a dry aspect based on preliminary analysis of floristic affinities and wood anatomical characteristics of the fossils.
Eighty-two silicified fossil woods were collected from Miocene formations on the western coast of the Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Twenty-two taxa (5 conifers and 17 dicotyledons) were identified. Five new species (Chamaecyparis parathyoides, Pterocarya parvipora, Populus soyaensis, Schima protowallichii, Lagerstroemia odaniense) and two species not previously known from the Miocene of Yamagata are described. This brings the number of fossil wood taxa from the Miocene of Yamagata to 39. Warm temperate elements such as Keteleeria, Liquidambar, Distylium and Lagerstroemia were found in the formations studied. The fossil wood assemblages from four Miocene formations (except Onisakatoge Formation from which only one sample was collected) suggest that the woody flora changed gradually during the Miocene from a mixture of cool and warm temperate elements to a warm temperate assemblage. These changes agree well with the vegetation changes during the Miocene in Japan; from the Aniai type to the Daijima-type.