, Matthew S. , The traveling waqf. Property, religion, and mobility beyond China , ILS 35 ( 2018 ): 121 – 155 .
Ernst , Carl W. , Eternal garden. Mysticism, history, and politics at a South Asian Sufi center , Albany 1992 .
Ernst , Carl W. and Bruce B. Lawrence , Sufi
The Baghdad-based Suhrawardiyya spread in the regions of Syria, Iran, China, Turkestan, Iraq, and especially India (Sobieroj). The order is usually ascribed to Abū Ḥafṣ Shihāb al-Dīn ʿUmar al-Suhrawardī (d. 632/1234), but some Ṣūfī authors suggested that the order began with Abū l
the Shādhiliyya were found everywhere from Morocco to China, day-to-day leadership passed to the local level, and sub-orders came into being, for example, the Jazūliyya Shādhiliyya, named after the Moroccan walī Muḥammad al-Jazūlī (d. 869/1465) (Bencheneb). Sub-orders, too, fragmented over time; for
widely than any other ṭarīqa . By the ninth/fifteenth century, the Qādiriyya had branches in the Middle East, the Maghrib, Iberia, the Indian subcontinent, the horn of Africa, and Mali, and by the tenth/sixteenth, it had reached China and present-day Indonesia. The landscape of the Qādiriyya can thus be
lodge in the oases of the Tarim Basin, the Khwājas’/Khojas’ groups extended their reach as far as the Chinese frontier (Weismann, Naqshbandiyya , 81–2; Papas, Soufisme et politique , 51–86, 139–56).
In the late twelfth/eighteenth century, Ṣūfī lodges and saints’ tombs and shrines dotted the
as the chief shaykh of the Naqshbandiyya ṭarīqa in the region. His successors ruled Kashgar, using the titles of pādishāh, khān , and töre (tribal leader; Togan, Islam in a changing society, 140), until the Chinese conquered it in the 1750s.
By the time the Kashgar
’s bondsmen from origin to return, esp. part 5, ch. 1–3) by the Kubrawī master Dāya Rāzī (d. 654/1256) was also written in Persian then translated into Arabic and even Chinese. This work offered kings, ministers, and deputies guidance on the spiritual path. Another Kubrawī, Sayyid ʿAlī Hamadānī (d. 786
Ṣūfī servicemen in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Awadh (northwestern Uttar Pradesh) who served as soldiers in the cold season and as pious mystics in the hot season (Papas, 127, 131, 135).
The Naqshbandiyya also heavily influenced the resistance of Turkic Muslims to Chinese rule during the
intellectuals who denounced Ṣūfī lodges as places that condoned laziness, the consumption of drugs, etc. In fact, reformist Ṣūfīs themselves advocated, in one way or another, the adaptation to “modernity.” This was the case, for example, of the Xidaotang, a Ṣūfī group in northwest China that, at the turn of the
subcontinent, Central Asia, and Anatolia, and China, marginally), the collection of almost seventy chapters opened new avenues of research, mainly, though not exclusively, into the intellectual history of Sufism, thanks to many detailed studies focusing on original and heretofore unexplored works of various
? , pp. 633–37; A.E. Clark, China’s Saints: Catholic Martyrdom During the Qing (1644–1911) , Bethlehem, PA, 2011, p. 110–11. 11 P. Camporesi, The Incorruptible Flesh: Bodily Mutation and Mortification in Religion and Folklore , Cambridge, 1988; Laqueur, Work of the Dead , pp. 35–54. H. Thurston, The
chivalrous caste from the eleventh to the twelfth century. R.W. Southern, 1951 , p. 13. 8 A parallel to this can be found in China under the Northern Song dynasty. As in Europe, the period from the mid tenth century to the twelfth century saw the emergence of a new well-educated elite who based their