leather production from industry-dominating China to peripheral countries in the last decade has opened a window of opportunity for peripheral countries with locational advantages. 32
In Sub-Saharan Africa ( ssa ), many countries have a large livestock sector, but only a few countries have managed to
, which had a long domestic industrial tradition before coming under Western dominance in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, above all China and India, were able to profit from the globalization of production. These countries have moved up from low end to high end in a number of chains, depriving
and only arrived in Mesoamerica due to merchant relations. After the arrival of the colonial rulers, similar as with tea from China and coffee from the Arab World, cocoa was brought from Mesoamerica to Europe as early as the sixteenth century. It remained an exclusive and exotic drink consumed only by
researched examples are trans-regional textile networks in the Lake Zurich and Lake Constance region, Austrian and Bohemian regions, Indian and Chinese regions, as well as trans-continental networks, often set up by Western trade companies that were able to integrate local and regional putting out systems
“white,” “black” and “yellow” coolie workers were differentially exploited based upon their racialized location. Ernst Langthaler’s chapter on the diverse histories of soy chains, however, reveals different drivers and expectations behind migration: while in China, mass migration from South to North was
incursions of white missionaries, settlers, and investors from the western powers initiated the import of the Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, and Philippine majority of today’s state and were accompanied by an immense decline of the native Hawaiian population to only one tenth of its size during the
the soy frontier is discussed in three different contexts: the northeast of China (Manchuria) from the 1900s to the 1940s, the US Midwest since the 1930s, and the Brazilian savannah and rainforest area since the 1970s. The comparison of these regional cases highlights the similarities and differences
&M already has a presence, and where unionists are routinely threatened and killed by death squads. Apart from India and Bangladesh, Esprit has supplier relations in China, while H&M have outsourced some specific work processes to home-based work in Bulgaria (a move which was revealed by a union of those
English-language social and behavioral science research into US self-help/mutual aid groups and nonprofit organizations (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous, Parents Without Partners, or bereavement groups) is reviewed. The review begins in the 1960s and proceeds into the new millennium, when institutionalized self-help/mutual aid was co-opted and renamed “support groups” by professionals. SHGs are intentionally created, single-issue, voluntary member-run mutual benefit groups that value the authority of lived experience, are cost-free, and where peers give and receive help from each other. Research attention expanded to European and Asian research in the 1990s, but has now switched to mental health peer support.
using the country’s military power for the economic subjugation of the world. Dazzled by this military power, many Americans insist that the twentieth century must become ‘the American century’. The present foreign policy of the United States – the conversion of China and Japan into semi
disorganise it and often bring mass unemployment to US towns.
The disintegration of the colonial system also had a telling influence on the course of the cycle. The export of all capital to the former colonial and semi-colonial countries which embarked on the socialist road of development – China
also discern that the reestablishment of world production will not, as there was reason to fear for a time, take place on a narrower scale, but on a wider. As soon as the problem of the reconstitution of political security in central Europe, in Russia, and in China is solved, a big boom is to be
, Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan, which have, however, freed themselves from the imperialist powers or are in the process of so doing. One large area remains, and it is around this that the struggle is now being waged: China.
But, influenced by the existence of the Soviet Union, and by that of the
adds: ‘Great Britain or her citizens are greatly interested in the oil fields of Mexico, the United States, Russia, China, the East Indies and other countries. This circumstance permits her to control almost half of the world output of oil’. The orator remarks that under the actual consumption the
gedruckt, Zonenleitung der K.P.D. , britische Zone, Spezialdruckerei Pittroff & Co. AAM 40 Wuppertal, Klasse B – 8046 10. 47 1500].
2 See extensively, Varga 1935.
3 Stalin 1944.
4 This does not, of course, apply to countries like China, i.e. countries having not yet completely
rise of Japan and the United States and the vigorous development of capitalism in China and India. The two authors of the report then concluded that all these unstable conditions also prevented the restoration of class equilibrium in its most essential domain, that of production. ‘The instability of
, and gigantic class struggles. This period, in which all international antagonisms are growing more acute (antagonisms between the capitalist countries and the Soviet Union, the military occupation of North China – the beginning of the partition of China – and the mutual struggles between the
down all Chinese walls, with which it forces the barbarians’ intensely obstinate hatred of foreigners to capitulate’. 3
The cyclical movement of capitalist reproduction and the periodical crises of overproduction had already begun in Western Europe. But the rapid expansion of the capitalist
the body mass and its subsequent loss of labour force. One may assume that in China and in India people lost even more weight.
10 Die Wirtschaftliche Kräfte der Welt 1930.
11 Hettlage 1940, p. 476.
12 Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung , 9 March 1944.
13 After Germany
17. The Trans-Atlantic countries and the colonies (such as South America, Canada, Australia, China, Egypt and others), which used to export raw materials, in their turn took advantage of the rupture in international relations for the development of their home industries. But the
general culture, labour skills, rational organisation of labour of all people participating in the labour process. We only want to give here two examples. In China, weaving-mills installed by English manufacturers were using the same mechanical weaving looms as in Lancashire. However, it appeared that
statesmen of the imperialist powers had learnt a lesson from history. The First World War resulted in the destruction of the bourgeois and landowner rule in Russia; the Second overthrew capitalism in Central and South-Eastern Europe, China and North Korea. The statesmen of the imperialist powers must
entered the road of socialism (China, Vietminh, North Korea). The decisive factor in the selection of countries for the export of capital became the political factor – the existence of ‘safety’ and ‘order’ in the country and the absence of the threat of nationalisation. The breakdown of the colonial
of this decline. It is now our business to deal with those features in greater detail.
1. The geographic expansion of capitalism is being checked . For, while capitalist domination makes some advance through getting a foothold in China and South America, it is being eliminated in Russia and