Democratising Development

The Politics of Socio-Economic Rights in South Africa

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Edited by Peris Jones and Kristian Stokke

What are the prospects and means of achieving development through a democratic politics of socio-economic rights? Starting from the position that socio-economic rights are as legally and normatively valid as civil and political rights, this anthology explores the politics of acquiring and transforming socio-economic rights in South Africa. The book brings together an interdisciplinary group of leading scholars in an examination of the multifaceted politics of social and economic policy-making, rights-based political struggles and socio-economic rights litigations. The post-apartheid South African experience shows that there is no guarantee that democracy will eliminate poverty or reduce social inequality, but also that democratic institutions and politics may provide important means for asserting interests and rights in regard to development. Thus it is argued that democratic politics of socio-economic rights may democratise development while also developing democracy.

J. Bruce Jacobs

Taiwan—together with India, Japan and South Korea—is one of only four consolidated Asian democracies. Democratizing Taiwan provides the most comprehensive analysis of Taiwan's peaceful democratization including its past violent authoritarian experiences, leadership both within and outside government, popular protest and elections, and constitutional interpretation and amendments. Using extensive field research including the conduct of many interviews with government and party leaders, journalists, academics and a wide variety of citizens over many years as well as substantial research into documents, newspapers and academic research, Professor Jacobs provides many new insights into Taiwan's democratization. He also analyses areas in which Taiwan continues to face difficulties.

Post-Communist Democratisation in Lithuania

Elites, parties, and youth political organisations. 1988-2001

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Diana Janušauskienė

Post-Communist Democratisation in Lithuania: Elites, Parties, and Youth Political Organisations. 1988 – 2001 explains post-communist changes in Lithuania. The transformation of political party system, political elites and youth political organisations in Lithuania are examined in light of democratisation in other post-communist countries. By linking theories of democratisation and elites to actual events, the book provides an analytical framework for interpreting political regime change and development in Lithuania. The book is based on five assumptions: (1) democratisation in Lithuania belongs to a ‘Western type’ of democratic development; (2) elites and nationalism were the major forces in modernisation; (3) Lithuanian elites have used the favourable conditions of perestroika and were the major actors in regime transformation; (4) the crop of political elites in Lithuania undergoes a generational change, and youth political organisations are very important in this process as they serve as schools for future politicians; and (5) class theory is less useful than elite theory when analysing the process of democratisation in Lithuania.

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Adina Stefan

Securitization and Democratization reveals the mutual dependency between democratization and securitization, two processes that while evolving reinforce each other. The study of the democratic consolidation is complemented by the more complex and dynamic securitization elements that offer an in-depth view of the internal threats to be faced. Ms. Stefan’s analysis creates an articulated and coherent concept underlying the close dependence between democracy and security. As a study case, Romania provides a wide scale of situations in several security sectors and contributes to building a model that is operational in any post-communist society.

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Mark G. Brett

This book analyses patterns of collective action that emerged during Guatemala’s democratic transition between 1985 and 1996, focusing in particular on the role of indigenous actors in the political processes undergirding and shaping democratisation and the respective impact of the transition upon indigenous social movements. Comparatively little has been written about collective action in Guatemala within the discipline of political science, despite the mobilisation of a wide range of social movements in response to the brutal armed conflict; rather, literature has focused principally on the role of elite actors in democratisation. This study presents a fresh perspective, presenting an analysis of the political evolution of three social movements and their human rights platforms through the framework of social movement theory.

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Charlotte Hille

Clan societies differ substantially from Western democratic states. Clan societies are based around the extended family. Honour and solidarity are important, which is reflected in nepotism and blood revenge. However, a more positive aspect of clan societies is the use of reconciliation to solve conflicts. This guarantees that parties to a conflict can cooperate in the future. When intervening in a clan based society it is important to be aware of the differences compared to Western democracy. Based on theory and practice the cases of Afghanistan, Iraq, Albania and Chechnya are investigated. This book explains clan society and provides tools to facilitate state building and democratization in clan based societies for those who intervene, aimed at conflict resolution and democratization.

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Edited by Ward Berenschot, H.G.C. (Henk) Schulte Nordholt and Laurens Bakker

Citizenship and Democratization in Southeast Asia redirects the largely western-oriented study of citizenship to postcolonial states. Providing various fascinating first-hand accounts of how citizens interpret and realize the recognition of their property, identity, security and welfare in the context of a weak rule of law and clientelistic politics, this study highlights the importance of studying citizenship for understanding democratization processes in Southeast Asia. With case studies from Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Cambodia, this book provides a unique bottom-up perspective on the character of public life in Southeast Asia.

Contributors are: Mary Austin, Laurens Bakker, Ward Berenschot, Sheri Lynn Gibbings, Takeshi Ito, David Kloos, Merlyna Lim, Astrid Norén-Nilsson, Oona Pardedes, Emma Porio, Apichat Satitniramai, Wolfram Schaffer and Henk Schulte Nordholt.

This title is available in its entirety in Open Access.

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Edited by Paul Gifford

This volume focuses on the role Christian churches have played in Africa's democratisation movements since the late 1980s. In some cases churchmen have presided over national conferences; in many, Christians comprise arguably the most significant segment of civil society. In some countries pastoral letters have challenged dictators; in others, churches have provided an essential support for the status quo.
The book comprises both theoretical analyses and case studies. The theoretical discussions include the history of Church-State relations; theology and democracy; Pentecostalism and democracy; the problems of consolidating democracy. The 13 case studies sketch the historical context, and then critically examine developments up till late 1993.
The book will prove particularly useful to students of Third World Christianity, African historians and political scientists, and all interested in the socio-political role of Christianity.

Democracy and Democratization in Africa

Towards the 21st Century

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Edited by Udogu

The 9 contributors to this volume are Africanists whose comprehension of the political "vernacular" of Africa helped to sharpen their analyses of a continent on the eve of a new millennium and in the aftermath of the Cold War. The debate over the most relevant political models for African countries has till recently been conducted against a backdrop of the competing claims of socialism and capitalism. Attempts to consolidate democracy and constitutional have taken place in the shadow of intractable economic problems, prompting the question of whether democracy can survive in Africa without economic prosperity. The papers published here address many of these problems, as well as dealing with the questions of ethnicity, leadership, the power of the military, and prodemocracy movements within African nation states.

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Imtiaz Hussain

Much has been written about democratizing Afghanistan and Iraq, yet a clear-cut, theoretically-enriching, and empirically thick comparative analysis remains overdue for societies as divided as these two. To partly fill in the vacuum, this book utilizes various theories and stages of international negotiations(which catalyzed democratization in both cases) in interpreting both cases, while also distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous democratization forces. How electoral democracy came about in both cases is traced from the negotiating table through at least 4 stages and 6 chapters. The study finds democratization being more stable when left on its own momentum (as in Afghanistan) than when conflict-driven (as in Iraq). Though full-fledged democracy does not appear inevitable in either case, the study's insightful exploration of its interface in Islamic communities and as a Bush Doctrine component alerts us to fasten our seat belts before elections beckon again.