Traktat al-Maqāṣid al-saniyyah li-maʿrifat al-aǧsām al-maʿdiniyyah des berühmten ägyptischen Geschichtsschreibers al-Maqrīzī (gest. 845/1442) befasst sich mit der Klassifikation der Mineralien, ihren medizinischen Anwendungen sowie Theorien über ihre Entstehung. Käs legt hier erstmals eine kritische Textedition mit deutscher Übersetzung und ausführlichem Kommentar vor. Grundlage der Edition des arabischen Texts war in der Hauptsache ein Leidener Codex, der von al-Maqrīzī eigenhändig korrigiert und mit Glossen erweitert wurde. Ein Faksimile der Handschrift wird in diesem Band ebenfalls abgedruckt. Käs konnte nachweisen, dass der Traktat fast vollständig von den Enzyklopädien Ibn Faḍlallāh al-ʿUmarīs und al-Qazwīnīs abhängig ist. Die Inhalte der Mineralienkapitel dieser Werke lassen sich ihrerseits bis zu den frühen arabischen Naturphilosophen und ihren griechischen Vorläufern zurückverfolgen.
The short treatise entitled
al-Maqāṣid al-saniyyah li-maʿrifat al-aǧsām al-maʿdiniyyah by the famous Egyptian historiographer al-Maqrīzī (d. 845/1442) deals with the classification of minerals, their medicinal uses and theories of their coming into being. Käs presents for the first time a critical edition of this text along with a German translation and a detailed commentary. The edition of the Arabic text is mainly based on the Leiden codex corrected and enlarged by al-Maqrīzī himself. A facsimile of this manuscript is also provided in this volume. Käs was able to prove that the treatise depends almost exclusively on the encyclopedias by Ibn Faḍlallāh al-ʿUmarī and al-Qazwīnī. The contents of their chapters on minerals can in turn be traced back to the early Arabic natural philosophers and their Greek precursors.
Using contemporary illustrations,
Legal Maxims in Islamic Criminal Law delves into the theoretical and practical studies of
al-Qawaid al-Fiqhiyyah in Islamic legal theory. It elucidates the importance of this concept in the application of Islamic law and demonstrates how the concept relates to the objectives of Islamic law (
maqāṣid al-Sharī‘ah), generally. Included in this examination are the following maxims:
al-Umūr bi-Maqāṣidihā ("Matters shall be Judged by their Objectives");
al-Yaqīn lā Yazūl bi-sh-Shakk ("Certainty Cannot be Overruled by Doubt");
al-Mashaqqa Tajlib at-Taysīr ("Hardship begets Facility");
Lā Ḍarar wa-lā Ḍirār ("No Injury or Harm shall be Inflicted or Reciprocated"); and
al-ʿĀda Muḥakkama ("Custom is Authoritative").
How Muftis Think Lena Larsen explores fatwas that respond to questions asked by Muslim women in Western Europe in recent decades. The questions show women to be torn between two opposing notions of morality and norms: one stressing women’s duties and obedience, and one stressing women’s rights and equality before the law. Focusing on muftis who see “the time and place” as important considerations in fatwa-giving, and seek to develop a local European Islamic jurisprudence on these increasingly controversial issues, Larsen examines how they deal with women’s dilemmas. Careful not to suggest easy answers or happy endings, her discussion still holds out hope that European societies and Muslim minorities can recognize shared moral concerns.
Islamic Commercial Law: Contemporariness, Normativeness and Competence offers new perspectives on why for centuries Islamic commercial law has been perceived as arbitrary and unpredictable, and on its evolution to a contemporary, consistent, reliable and credible body of law. The book also examines why Western positivists have viewed Islamic commercial law in a simplistic or archaic religious framework and counters those arguments with an examination of its normative legal qualities. The work analyses the competencies of Fiqh (jurisprudence) for structuring new financial instruments, and restructuring conventional financial products more equitability.
Rethinking Islamic Legal Modernism Ron Shaham challenges the common opinion that Islamic legal modernism, as represented by Rashid Rida (d. 1935), is of poor intellectual quality and should not be considered an authentic development within Islamic law. The book focuses on the celebrated Sunni jurist, Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), whom Shaham perceives as a close follower of Rida.
By studying the coherence of Qaradawi's Wasati theory of
ijtihad and the consistency of its application in his legal opinions (fatwas), Shaham argues that Qaradawi, by means of eclecticism and synthesis, conducts a bold dialogue with the Islamic juristic heritage and brings it to bear on modern developments, in particular the institutional framework of the nation-state.
Visions of Sharīʿa Bhojani, De Rooij and Bohlander present the first broad examination of ways in which legal theory (
uṣūl al-fiqh) within Twelver Shīʿī thought continues to be a forum for vibrant debates regarding the assumptions, epistemology and hermeneutics of
Sharīʿa in contemporary Shīʿī thought. Bringing together authoritative voices and emerging scholars, from both ‘traditional’ seminaries and ‘Western’ academies, the distinct critical insider and emic accounts provided develop a novel avenue in Islamic legal studies. Contextualised through reference to the history of Shīʿī legal theory as well as contemporary juristic practice and socio-political considerations, the volume demonstrates how one of the most intellectually vibrant and developed discourses of Islamic thought continues to be a key forum for exploring visions of