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Sharon E. Wise and Robert G. Jaeger

variation in these environmental factors can lead to variation in agonistic behaviour within and among populations (Wiltenmuth & Nishikawa, 1998 ; Scotti & Foster, 2007 ; Scotti et al., 2007 ; Walton et al., 2011 ; Gonçalves-de-Freitas et al., 2014 ). Even in species that defend relatively permanent

Scott and Deag

a) on the agonistic behaviour of wild blue tits Parus caeruleus must be regarded as a classic study of the motivation and communicative effect of threat displays (Caryl, 1979). The approach he adopted has been widely used (e.g. Bossema & Burgier, 1980; Paton & Caryl, 1986; Wilson, 1994). Stokes

Ton Groothuis

agonistic behaviour in the ontogeny of displays. KRUIJT (1964) has made one of the most thorough studies of the ontogeny of agonistic behaviour. He reported several changes in agonistic behaviour in the course of ontogeny: 1) This study was largely inspired by Gerard BAERENDS, who took the initiative for

David W. Dunham and Radu Cornel Guiasu

-form differences in aggression and, therefore, a compar- ative study of the agonistic behaviours of the two cambarid male forms could be useful in providing relevant information on this matter. To this end, we ana- lyzed the initiation behaviours (behaviours which trigger the start of fights) and bout dynamics

H.H. Swanson and A.P. Payne

sequence of components shown in agonistic behaviour has been described in detail (GRANT & MACKINTOSH, 1963 ; LERWILL, 1968) as have the methods used here (PAYNE & SWANSON, Briefly, an aggressive interaction is won when one animal adopts an offensive posture which elicits a defensive posture or an evasion

Angela Poole and Paul Brain

are presumed to in- fluence an animal's, propensity for exhibiting fighting behavior) of animals cannot be measured directly. As a consequence of this rather obvious state- ment," "aggression tests" are utilized in which the amount of agonistic behavior in a standard time interval is assessed by

Kristine M. Gerhardt and Robert E. Gorton

function of develop- mental stage. MANNING & JOHNSTONE (1970) investigated the ontogeny of agonistic behaviour in young adults of N auphoeta cinerea, finding that ag- gressiveness in males was greatly dependent on social experience after the final molt. This study compares the ontogeny of social behaviour

Wayne P. Aspey

ignored compared to agonistic behavior in other arthropods (CRANE, 1957; REESE, 1962; HAZLETT, 1966, 1968a, b, 1972, 1974; DINGLE & CALDWELL, 1969). Although DIJKSTRA (1969) was the first to study agonistic display in males of the lycosid Pardosa amentata, he considered such behavior only in an

D.C. Thompson

the species have been gathered incidentally to management oriented research. Two components of squirrel behaviour must be grasped and combined prior to speculation on the social system. Both the qualitative and quantitative use of space by individual squirrels and the agonistic behaviour, particularly

Alan Lill

results are presented in an essentially similar form. The aim of the experiment was to determine how close together two chickens could feed before agonistic behavior developed (i.e. to determine the minimal approach distance). 260 Material I and methods. Observations were made on two established