importations of bozales . The author purports that much of Afro-Bolivian Spanish is restructured Spanish and offers convincing evidence to illustrate this. He provides a handful of putative Africanisms that have survived restructuration. In the light of the socio-historical facts presented, this is a good
history about language contact, 2) a review of existing linguistic research for Spanish in the United States, 3) related studies on English influence in the Spanish-language press in the United States and 4) varying typologies that exist for borrowings and identifying those presented in the current
(cf., of course, Givón 1971 for the opposite claim). When such paradigmatic morphology was not present in earlier stages of the languages, this strength could not make itself felt and the descendant languages show pro-drop characteristics.
Bisang’s scenario is certainly inherently plausible and in
communication, the latter being in the focus of linguistics. An attempt at a typology is presented for both complexes, in this paper. Contacts of speakers are classified according to their intensity/quantity, their quality, and their stratification. Interference types of language systems are classified in terms
key property of verb clusters, play in such a moribund stage of language use and how–if at all–is it realized? While the literature on verb clusters has been fruitful in investigating how to account for verb order variations or why certain variations are not permissible,
the present study finds
exposure that individual heritage speakers had to Ambon Malay in the course of their lifetime also explains some of the attested patterns.
This paper is structured as follows. In the remainder of this section (section 1.1) we present information on the social and linguistic history of heritage speakers
The general aim of the research presented here is to show what happens to the syntactic structure of a German variety when it is mixed with Russian by bilingual ethnic German speakers living in Siberia. More specifically, we want to investigate specific word order phenomena based on
grammar in bilingual heritage language communities, and how the heritage grammars are affected by contact between the heritage variety and the socially-dominant language. Arnbjörnsdóttir, Thráinsson, and Nowenstein present data on the status of verb second (V2) in North American Icelandic, and find that
syntactic properties of a grammatical morpheme of the source language(s) (SL).
I will present a clear example from Colloquial Singapore English, concerning the functions of got in this indigenised variety. All examples come from Lee, Ping and Nomoto (2009) . In CSE, got on its own is a verb
processes involved in recalling lexical items. The analysis presented here pulls together a wide range of data gathered over a period of two years. In tracing the path of lexical items from one language to another it has been necessary to include many kinds of material and to go beyond the specifics of the