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Yan Huang

John smokes R/I-implicates that John smokes cigarettes. But according to Blutner (forthcoming), in Amsterdam, it may implicate that John smokes joints (cigarettes containing marijuana). Th is indicates that an R/I-implicated nar- rowing is also subject to cultural factors. 132 Y. Huang

Laurence Horn

-Hamiltonian John Stuart Mill, the delimiting of some is subject both to the vagaries of context and speech level and to the speaker’s epistemic state (as signaled by the added emphases below): Th ere are three ways in which one extent may be related to another …: complete inclusion, partial inclusion with partial

Bruce Fraser

. Th ere are adverbial DMs which occur in medial but not fi nal position, and vice versa as (17a-b) show, although if the segment subjects are the same, as in (17c), the DM may not occur in segment-medial position. 5 (17) a. Th e trip was tiring. Despite that , he ( *despite that ) remained cheerful

Assimakis Tseronis

they cannot express a proposition in the sense of indicating a subject and attributing something to it (see Novitz, 1977: 90). According to Novitz, pictures, like sentences, can express propositions with the difference that in the case of sentences it is syntax and grammar that help the hearer


Reinhard G. Kratz

be expected in the reconstruction of textual formation—of course, always subject to the proviso that it is a hypothesis. In particular, the numerous subtle reformulations in the Qumran examples, which would not be recognised without knowledge of the Vorlage , urge us to analyse the biblical texts in

Dániel Z. Kádár

from a language and interaction perspective. 2 I refer to ritual roles as “conventional” as they are subject to potential renegotiations, as example (3) in this paper illustrates. I.e. one can fulfil their ritual interactional role in an unconventional way. 3 Note that the notion of

Four Potential Meanings of Double Negation

The Pragmatics of nicht un-Constructions

Laura Neuhaus

Conventionalisation Van der Wouden (1996: 163) observes that “many litotetic expressions are subject to fossilization or grammaticalization. […] Cases such as not bad , it is beyond doubt […] have developed into fixed clichés or idioms.” Theories of conventionalised or lexicalised metaphors abound (for an

Madeleine Arseneault

is remote from the relevant subject, it is a form of speech that is usually used in such cases, and so the same kind of implicature arises in other contexts of use: if you say “he stopped his car in front of a house”, you have implicated that it is not his house. This kind of example illustrates how

Ewa Wałaszewska

exemplars of the category dog , which can be illustrated with Rosch’s (1975: 198) opinion presented in the instructions for subjects during one of her experiments: “To me a retriever or a German shepherd is a very doggy dog while a Pekinese is a less doggy dog”. Such an understanding of hedges goes back to

The affordances and constraints of situation and genre

Visual and multimodal rhetoric in unusual traffic signs

Charles Forceville and Jens E. Kjeldsen

response advanced by the rhetorical agent. In fact elements (1) and (2) suffice to function as visual equivalents of speech acts , specifically those of “warning,” “forbidding,” and “instructing.” The silhouettes (if present) in element (3) depict the subject or focus of a traffic sign’s specific