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Mary B. Ayad

should not be assumed. In so far as there is danger in straying from predictable methods, there is also danger in a scholarly criticism that completely undermines the modern adaptation of a legal system with cultures that evolve, which, as the author submits, is what this criticism logically leads to, if

Nadia Marzouki

and of adaptation to changing constellations of power. “Zomians are not as a rule only linguistically and ethnically amphibious; they are … capable of nearly instantaneous social change, abandoning their fields and house to join or form a new community at the behest of a trusted prophet. Their

Ayoub Al-Jarbou

see: Summer Scott Huyette, Political Adaptation in Saudi Arabia: Study of the Council of Ministers . (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1985). 87 The competence of the Board before 1982 was de fi ned mainly by its Law which was enacted by the Royal Decree 2/13/9578 dated 17/9/1374AH (1955). The Board

Butti Sultan Butti Ali Al-Muhairi

well known, is an adaptation of English law to the needs of British- India".69 These penal codes make comprehensive provisions for substantial and procedural rules governing all offences, including those that are comprehensively dealt with by the Shari'a criminal law. Thus by the end of this second

Living Knowledge in West African Islam

The Sufi Community of Ibrāhīm Niasse

Series:

Zachary Valentine Wright

Living Knowledge in West African Islam examines the actualization of religious identity in the community of Ibrāhīm Niasse (d.1975, Senegal). With millions of followers throughout Africa and the world, the community arguably represents one of the twentieth century’s most successful Islamic revivals. Niasse’s followers, members of the Tijāniyya Sufi order, gave particular attention to the widespread transmission of the experiential knowledge (maʿrifa) of God. They also worked to articulate a global Islamic identity in the crucible of African decolonization.

The central argument of this book is that West African Sufism is legible only with an appreciation of centuries of Islamic knowledge specialization in the region. Sufi masters and disciples reenacted and deepened preexisting teacher-student relationships surrounding the learning of core Islamic disciplines, such as the Qurʾān and jurisprudence. Learning Islam meant the transformative inscription of sacred knowledge in the student’s very being, a disposition acquired in the master’s exemplary physical presence. Sufism did not undermine traditional Islamic orthodoxy: the continued transmission of Sufi knowledge has in fact preserved and revived traditional Islamic learning in West Africa.

The Secular State in a Declining Europe

Beyond the End of the European Universal Dream

Silvio Ferrari

went farthest along the way to building a multi-cultural and multi-religious society, whether this experiment is the right answer to the challenges of religious diversification remains to be assessed. 5 Conclusion The three European versions of the secular state are sensible adaptations to three