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administrative law as a set of rules independent of their implementation, after much negotiation, within local conditions. However, such negotiations and adaptations to local conditions took place within the limits of a legal discourse shared across the urban centers of the Empire. It is important not to

In: Journal of Early Modern History

Confrontations: Gender as a Factor in Indian Adaptation to European Colonization in New France”, American Quarterly 38, no. 3 (1986): 470–472. For the role of native women as “negotiators of change” in New France’s western fur trade, see Susan Sleeper Smith, “Women, Kin, and Catholicism: New Perspectives on

In: Journal of Early American History

tends to depict a narrative in which religious notions lost their power in favor of secular and rational economic precepts. Focusing on adaptations of usury, on the other hand, emphasizes the revision of traditional religious images as a byproduct of commercialization, a process that when looked at from

In: Journal of Early Modern History

community. In the Korean adaptation of the Chinese prototypes, the “liberal features” found in Zhu Xi’s community compact were considerably less conspicuous. 32 The seriousness with which scholars and community leaders interpreted their responsibility of promoting and supervising the trans formation of

In: Journal of Early Modern History

painting. Th e know-how, however, was never swal- lowed arbitrarily. Nor did it all arrive directly from Europe. In fact, the new styles emerge out of processes of assimilation and adaptation acquired through several artistic venues of contact: direct contact with European artists in residence in Safavid

In: Journal of Early Modern History

adaptation in the external Islamic world. Military organization is certainly a critical element in political development, particularly for a region like the Sudan, but it cannot be understood apart from the broader context of social and cultural development. Some of this social context has already been

In: Journal of Early Modern History

(Westport, CT, 1995), 32. 32 Already by the mid-nineteenth century M.N. Kapustin recognized the signifi cance of the Westphalian peace and the idea of ius gentium (law of nations) for Muscovy’s gradual adaptation to the European diplomatic system connected with it, Kapustin, Diplo- maticheskiia snosheniia

In: Journal of Early Modern History

), 98-102. Despite this manuscript situation, Wayne Ford Barnette, “ Stepennaia kniga : Sources, Th eir Adaptation and Development,” PhD dis- sertation, (Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 1979), 166, wrote that Monomakh’s “unashamed love of the hunt” might lie at the root of the dearth of material

In: Journal of Early Modern History

: Persistence, Adaptation, and Change,” Hispanic American Historical Review 67 (1987): 203-231. 66 Morga, Sucesos , 189, 298; Bartolomé de Argensola, Conquista de las islas Malucas (Madrid, 2009 [1609]), 290-293; Chin, “Junk trade,” 198. 67 Aduarte, Historia , 102. 68 Municipal and religious

In: Journal of Early Modern History

Evangelicalism . 9 Little, Origins of Southern Evangelicalism ; Arlin C. Migliazzo, To Make This Land Our Own: Community, Identity, and Cultural Adaptation in Purrysburg Township, South Carolina, 1732-1865 (Columbia, sc , 2007); James van Horn Melton, Religion, Community, and Slavery on the Colonial

In: Journal of Early Modern History