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Lars Mjøset

). 1 By the mid-1970s, he had perfected this style to a high level of methodological sophistication. Our aim here is to present and critically discuss that last version of his style of comparative research. Based on a chronological reading, we systematically review its various elements. This is not a

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Sonia Zyngier

Since its beginning in the late 19th century, literary education has lacked theories that systematize teaching and methodologies that validate practice. Consequently, much work in the area has relied on argument rather than on real data. What is needed in literary education are ways in which scholars develop descriptions of methods that will help them arrive at evidence-based conclusions. However, this is easier said than done. Trying to cope with the problems of dealing with hypotheses, statistics and numbers in general, Humanities students tend to see the experience as both frightening and fascinating. In order to find out the difficulties students of literature encounter when learning to do empirical research, a questionnaire was distributed to 14 participants from different countries who attended the IGEL2 Summer Institute in 2004. Participants were asked how they became interested in empirical studies, what their literary biography was, what they considered the main problems of empirical work to be, and how they thought it related to literary education. Respondents agreed that there is a need to teach students how to deal with real, palpable knowledge by means of well-structured and objective data. This article presents the main problems participants raised in empirical work.

Stephan Palmié

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2007 DOI: 10.1163/157006607X184825 www.brill.nl/jra Ecué ’s Atlantic: An Essay in Methodology Stephan Palmié University of Chicago, Department of Anthropology, 1126 E 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA palmie@uchicago.edu Abstract Arguing from an exposition of

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Edited by Elke van Steendam, Marion Tillema, Gert Rijlaarsdam and Huub van den Bergh

This volume provides a state-of-the-art overview of theory, methodology and practices in the assessment of writing. The focus throughout the book is on the construct of writing and its assessment: what constitutes writing ability and how can it be defined (in various contexts)? This question cannot be answered without looking into the methodological question of how to validate and measure the construct of writing ability. Throughout the book, therefore, discussions integrate theoretical and methodological issues. A number of chapters discusses whether varying definitions and varying operationalizations of writing ability are needed in various contexts, such as formative assessments versus summative assessments, large scale assessments versus individual assessments, different tasks, different genres, and different languages, but also different age groups. A range of rating methods is investigated and discussed in this book. The ongoing debate on holistic versus analytic ratings, and the different underlying conceptions of writing proficiency, is a pertinent matter, on which a number of chapters in this volume shed new light. The matter is discussed and analyzed from various angles, such as generalizability of judgements and usability in formative contexts. Another fundamental debate concerns computer scoring of written products. A nuanced discussion of its validity is presented in this volume.

A Modest Proposal on Method

Essaying the Study of Religion

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Russell T. McCutcheon

A Modest Proposal on Method further documents methodological and institutional failings in the academic study of religion. This collection of essays—which includes three previously unpublished chapters—identifies the manner in which old problems (like the presumption that our object of study is a special, deeply meaningful case) yet remain in the field. But amidst the critique there are a variety of practical suggestions for how the science of religion can become methodologically even-handed and self-reflexive—the markings of a historically rigorous exercise. Each chapter is introduced and contextualized by a newly written, substantive introduction.

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Edited by Lene Kühle, Jørn Borup and William Hoverd

Drawing on international and thematic case studies, The Critical Analysis of Religious Diversity asks its readers to pay attention to the assumptions and processes by which scholars, religious practitioners and states construct religious diversity. The study has three foci: theoretical and methodological issues; religious diversity in non-Western contexts; and religious diversity in social contexts. Together, these trans-contextual studies are utilised to develop a critical analysis exploring how agency, power and language construct understandings of religious diversity. As a result, the book argues that reflexive scholarship needs to consider that the dynamics of diversification and homogenisation are fundamental to understanding social and religious life, that religious diversity is a Western concept, and that definitions of ‘religious diversity’ are often entangled by and within dynamic empirical realities.

Eventful Learning

Learner Emotions

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Edited by Stephen M. Ritchie and Kenneth Tobin

A rich array of social and cultural theories constitutes a solid foundation that affords unique insights into teaching and learning science and learning to teach science. The approach moves beyond studies in which emotion, cognition, and context are often regarded as independent. Collaborative studies advance theory and resolve practical problems, such as enhancing learning by managing excess emotions and successfully regulating negative emotions. Multilevel studies address a range of timely issues, including emotional energy, discrete emotions, emotion regulation, and a host of issues that arose, such as managing negative emotions like frustration and anxiety, dealing with disruptive students, and regulating negative emotions such as frustration, embarrassment, disgust, shame, and anger. A significant outcome is that teachers can play an important role in supporting students to successfully regulate negative emotions and support learning.

The book contains a wealth of cutting edge methodologies and methods that will be useful to researchers and the issues addressed are central to teaching and learning in a global context. A unifying methodology is the use of classroom events as the unit for analysis in research that connects to the interests of teacher educators, teachers, and researchers who can adapt what we have done and learned, and apply it in their local contexts. Event-oriented inquiry highlights the transformative potential of research and provides catchy narratives and contextually rich events that have salience to the everyday practices of teachers, teacher educators, and researchers. Methods used in the research include emotion diaries in which students keep a log of their emotions, clickers to measure in-the-moment emotional climate, and uses of cogenerative dialogue, which caters to diverse voices of students and teachers.

Philip L. Tite

CATEGORICAL DESIGNATIONS AND METHODOLOGICAL REDUCTIONISM: GNOSTICISM AS CASE STUDY1 PHILIP L. TITE Debate continues between reductionists and non-reductionists over sui generis discourse within the academic study of religion. In this article, Gnosticism is explored as a case study for applying

Ingrid Smithey Fulmer and Bruce Barry

International Negotiation 9: 485–502, 2004. © 2004 Koninklijke Brill NV. Printed in the Netherlands. Methodological Challenges in the Study of Negotiator Affect BRUCE BARRY* Owen Graduate School of Management, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203 USA E-mail: bruce

Bilderwelten: Ägyptische Bilder und ägyptologische Kunst

Vorarbeiten für eine bildwissenschaftliche Ägyptologie

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Kai Widmaier

Egyptologists have been debating for decades about whether or not Egyptian images classify as art. Nevertheless, the term ‘art’ still serves as a guiding concept for Egyptology. Kai Widmaier offers an overview of how different art-historical interpretive methods influence Egyptological research. His study demonstrates that, due to its adherence to the term art, Egyptology has considerably dissociated Egyptian images from their original contexts.
Bilderwelten combines the analysis of Egyptian images from the 6th to the 18th Dynasty with methodological reflection. This leads to both a new terminology of style as well as to an alternative approach to Egyptian images. By differentiating systematically between Egyptian images and Egyptological art, this book lays the foundation for an Egyptology that follows the path of Visual Studies instead of adhering to questionable art-historical methods.