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The bare-marking of ga

Its function in spoken Japanese

Masako Hoye

1. Introduction Japanese exhibits a nominative-accusative pattern where the subjects of transitive and intransitive sentences are coded identically with the postpositional particle -ga , as exemplified in the constructed sentences (1) and (2) below. However, this ‘case

Haifa Alatawi


The Default hypothesis on implicature processing suggests that a rapid, automatic mechanism is used to process utterances such as “some of his family are attending the wedding” to infer that “not all of them are attending”, an inference subject to cancellation if additional contextual information is provided (e.g. “actually, they are all attending”). In contrast, the Relevance hypothesis suggests that only context-dependent inferences are computed and this process is cognitively effortful. This article reviews findings on behavioural and neural processing of scalar implicatures to clarify the cognitive effort involved.

Dusana Dorjee, Merrill F. Garrett and Robert M. Harnish

-free occurrences of implicitures would be considered ambiguous since context-dependent processes needed for inferring them are absent. This is because an utterance without strongly implicated premises is subject to application of a wide range of premises that are likely to vary across people (Sperber and Wilson

Stephanie Solt, Chris Cummins and Marijan Palmović

any direct evidence that round numbers are in fact easier to process, nor is there a large body of existing research to this point. In the one directly relevant study we are aware of, Mason, Healy and Marmie (1996) found that subjects’ memory for numbers produced as answers to mathematical problems

Angelo Turri and John Turri

. 2.1.2. Materials and Procedure Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a 2 (Ability: unable, able) × 2 (Obstruction: external, internal) between-subjects design. Participants read a brief text and answered three test statements. The story featured Samantha, whose co

Salvatore Pistoia-Reda

cannot also be a private or a sergeant. But if we extract such pieces of information from common knowledge, it immediately follows that the mechanism governing a blind only will recognize the alternatives as being logically independent. As a consequence, they will be subject to negation irrespective of

From text to scheme

Problems in identifying arguments from expert opinion

Douglas Walton and Marcin Koszowy

& Macagno, 2008: 310) as follows. Major Premise : Source E is an expert in subject domain S containing proposition A . Minor Premise : E asserts that proposition A is true (false). Conclusion : A is true (false). An argument from expert opinion needs to be evaluated by the asking of the following


Everything You Always Wanted to Know about the Pragmatics of Deception but Were Afraid to Test

Marta Dynel and Jörg Meibauer

deception research. 3. Studies of Deception Cues The most prolific area of investigation seems to concern the cues for, or concomitants of, deception. Deception, primarily lying, is the subject of innumerable studies driven by the wish to generate robust lists of indicators of lying (see e

Roberta Colonna Dahlman

propositional attitude holder (the ‘knower’) and describes the situation from the knower’s point of view. In other words, the speaker knows that the subject’s belief was false and hence it was not knowledge, but she chooses to describe this mental state as it was perceived by the subject at that very moment in

István Kenesei

: 246), in other words, by first taking an utterance like (11c) and identifying its subject with, or subsuming it under, the subject of (10), since arguments are parts of theories, and then subsuming the predicate in (11c) under that of (10), since buildings can be shaky. Of course there can be several