commander, now part of the Congolese Army, Bosco Ntaganda, 37 is subject both to an arrest warrant of the International Criminal Court 38 and targetedsanctions by the Security Council. 39 A variety of UN sources have reported that members of the Congolese Army and police have been responsible for
exemption and by monitoring humanitarian impacts; · Targetingsanctions measures on the elites in power (and their supportive constituencies) who are in breach of accepted international standards of behaviour. These two elements have a common goal: enhancing the effectiveness of sanctions regimes by
sequentially. For instance, the most desirable way of addressing an ongoing genocide may be to name and shame the offending state, to launch targetedsanctions on its leaders (e.g. travel bans), and to commence international criminal prosecutions (e.g. by a referral to the International Criminal Court ( icc
diplomatic conference to assess the actions of the relevant rec ; a ‘name and shame’ approach that details violations and the opportunity for the errant member state to redress the identified defects; and if no positive, actions are forthcoming, the imposition of targetedsanctions. In this regard, the AU
explicit reference to R 2 P .
Resolution 1970 of February 2011 authorised targetedsanctions against Gaddafi and top leaders of his regime. Follow-up Resolution 1973 ordered a no-flight zone and authorised the use of force to enforce it. In the course of the intervention, however, the Gaddafi
frequency and visibility, the iaea was coming under increasing pressure by Washington to refer Iran’s nuclear dossier to the un Security Council for the imposition of targetedsanctions under Chapter vii of the un Charter. This was exactly the scenario Iran was endeavoring to avoid at all cost
Secretariat, un Doc. a/62/329, 11 September 2007, para. 12.
For instance, in the context of un targetedsanctions, Professor Reinisch also reflects on possible alternative mechanisms or procedures, including political mechanisms. A. Reinisch, ‘Developing Human Rights and Humanitarian Law
European Convention on Human Rights, Due Process and United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Sanctions , 10, 13-14 September 2006 (available at <www.coe.int>); Larissa van den Herik & Nico Schrijver, “Human Rights Concerns in Current TargetedSanctions Regimes from the Perspective of
agenda, namely the realization of an indirect reform of (the working methods of ) the UNSC. Others suggested that countries like Switzerland and Liechtenstein keep a close track of the UNSC’s targetedsanctions practice because of their status as international financial and banking centres. The
. In the same year, the EU imposed “targetedsanctions” that eﬀ ectively cut $100 million worth of devel- opment aid from 2002 to 2007. Th is followed the Zimbabwe parliament pass- ing a law in 2001 to ban foreign observers from the elections coming up in 2002 because of the need by the government to