1 Introduction To form an Energy Union, create an ‘integrated energy market’ 1 and meet goals in the field of energy set for 2020, 2 2030 3 and 2050, 4 with a special focus on the security of supply, competitiveness, sustainability, modernisation, diversification of energy sources and promotion
This first book in a three-volume work on
Sea-Bed Energy and Minerals: The International Legal Regime is concerned with the law governing the exploitation of energy and mineral resources in two quite different sub-marine areas. Volume 1 deals with the areas within the limits of national jurisdiction, that is, all of the submarine areas extending from the coast to the seaward limit of the continental shelf. As its subtitle indicates, this volume is predominantly concerned with
The Continental Shelf.
Although the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has still not entered into force, and, indeed, may not do so for many years for some of the major maritime powers, its adoption in 1982 did, nonetheless, usher in a period of relative stability in the rules governing the areas within national jurisdiction, including, in particular, the continental shelf. However, being the creatures of compromise, some of its rules are undeniably vague and it has been left to State practice and international courts and tribunals to develop these rules further, especially those relating to the delimitation of the continental shelf between neighbouring States.
Volume 1 provides an analysis of the rules of conventional and custromary law in the light of this practice.
Volume 2, on
Sea-Bed Mining, deals with the area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, that is, the submarine area lying seaward of the outer limit of the continental shelf. Volume 3, which will be published at the same time as Volume 2, will provide
Documents, Tables and Bibliography relating to the subject matter of the first two volumes.
accessible only by foot. Considering the above, and with the objective of providing power to those communities, it becomes necessary to build off-grid power systems. The renewable-energy-based off-grid systems are among the most feasible. However, financing research in isolated and remote areas in Costa Rica
There is a common understanding that access to modern forms of energy plays a crucial role in development—as a necessary, even though not sufficient condition. 1 This shared belief, however, has not resulted in a coherent global political strategy emerging from international conferences dedicated
climate and energy strategy, proposing an eu -wide target of 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas ( ghg ) emissions below 1990 levels, a 27% share in energy consumption for renewable energy, including a new governance framework for the preparation of energy plans at the Member States level and
The economic health of the global economy is directly tied to international energy policies, and none are more important than those of Russia, which is now the world’s largest petroleum export nation. At the same time, oil and gas are finite resources and new sources of supply must be found. It is certain that the Arctic will be one of the areas of greatest interest. Wherever the energy resource originates, the law of the sea regime will be critical in the movement from source to market. Thus, this book on International Energy Policy, the Arctic and the Law of the Sea is especially timely. The content is based on presentations made in St. Petersburg, Russia in June, 2004. The perspectives of Russia, China and the United States are discussed in depth by some of the world’s foremost authorities. The special significance of the Caspian Sea routes for export and the consequences of the opening of a Northwest Passage due to global warming are among the unique issues covered in this volume.
Carefoot T.H. Feeding, food preference, and the uptake of food energy by the supralittoral isopod Ligia pallasii Mar. Biol 1973 18 228 236
Carefoot T.H. The effect of diet quality on oxygen consumption in the supralittoral isopod Ligia pallasii. Comp. Biochem. Physiol
of Chinese development finance remain under-researched. Carbon externality is one of the issues that has not yet been fully discussed in the energy and investment law literature, particularly with regards to energy development finance under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). 3 Analysed in economic