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( eds.) 1994. Mixed languages: 15 case studies of language intertwining . Amsterdam: IFOTT. Bittner, Maria & Kenneth Hale. 1996. The Structural Determination of Case and Agreement. Linguistic Inquiry 27:1-68. Bresnan, Joan. 2001. Pidgin genesis in Optimality Theory. In M. Butt & T.H. King (eds.) LFG98

In: Journal of Language Contact

might also be possible to extend the parenthetical suggestion made in footnote 10 to a higher level than the sub-symbolic by suggesting that the cognitive-optimum theory makes a mistake in theorizing con- cepts when it appeals to scalar degree of counterintuitivity, for example, in the terms “minimally

In: Method & Theory in the Study of Religion

-formedness in terms of constraints as used in the framework of Optimality Theory (OT), though I put forth the constraints as tentative and made no attempt to produce a full-fledged OT analysis with constraint rankings. Here, I will formulate constraints informally as descriptive generalizations about how text

In: Brill's Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics

/benefit analysis of cost and informativity. While many of these accounts are promising, and formalized in the familiar frameworks of Optimality Theory and Rational Speech Act Theory, none of them currently extend to embedded Manner implicature, and thus arguably need to be supplemented or recast in the backdrop of

In: International Review of Pragmatics

obstruent clusters in optimality theory. College Park, Maryland: University of Maryland. (Doctoral dissertation). Norman, Jerry. 1973. Tonal development in Min. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 1(2). 222–238. Norman, Jerry. 1994. Pharyngealization in early Chinese. Journal of the American Oriental Society

In: Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale

(1969). Abtönungspartikel. Die deutschen Modalwörter und ihre französischen Entsprechungen . Bad Homburg: Gehlen. Zeevat, Henk (2003). Particles: presupposition triggers, context markers or speech act markers. In Reinhard Blutner & Henk Zeevat eds., Optimality theory and pragmatics , 91

In: Secondary Content

English dialects. Fong (2017) claims for an Optimality Theory explanation of already in Singlish, in which the possible uses of already in Singlish are matched with the possible uses in standard English, and the compatibilities noted: important is that the diphasic nature of the perfect aspect in

In: Journal of Language Contact

’s Markedness Differential Hypothesis ( 1977 ) and Structural Conformity Hypothesis ( 1991 ), research on L2 parameter-resetting (e.g., Broselow & Finer, 1988 ; White, 1985 ), and Eckman’s Optimality Theory-motivated work (Eckman, 2004a ) were important early examples. Accessible surveys are available

In: Brill Research Perspectives in Multilingualism and Second Language Acquisition

the left edge of these forms. In theory, one could counter this by invoking something like an Optimality Theory account with ranked rules (inspired by Anderson 2005) and argue that the items are indeed prefixes, but are subject to a constraint disallowing initial placement in the word domain. This

In: Indo-European Linguistics

” (Thomason 2001b: 85). 58 Bernd Heine & Tania Kuteva Journal of language contact – THEMA 2 (2008) www. flexible “constrain t” of the sort popularized in Optimality Theory”. But the no-linguistic-constraint hypothesis has not gone unchallenged. For example, Oksaar (1972:492) concludes that

In: Journal of Language Contact