noxious odors, which ostensibly caused disease. “Eastern” spices were not necessarily eastern. The most popular spice in medieval Cairo was cinnamon; it came in two varieties, “Chinese” and “Ceylonese”, both of which, however, were imported from eastAfrica. Cloves were not popular, and even less were
Westerners in the Indian Ocean region and (as we shall see below) to the special seafaring skills which such Westerners often possessed. As a result, black slaves from EastAfrica, and especially Christians from Ethiopia, were probably on the whole much more numerous than any contingent of “Frankish” rowers
picked up stories about other regions which he did not himself visit, such as Japan (‘Cipangu’), where the walls and roofs of the ruler’s palace were allegedly covered with gold, or the EastAfrican coast. In its scope, consequently, his book had no precedent: in Professor Larner’s words, ‘never before
Merchants (Princeton: Markus Wiener, 2003), 3; Savage, “Berbers and Blacks,” 365-366. The reference to the pilgrimage in this passage may be significant: while many slaves came from India and EastAfrica, slaves from North Africa generally arrived via the Ḥijāz, when the pilgrimage season brought large
Heather J. Sharkey (Ed.) , Cultural Conversions. Unexpected Consequences of Christian Missionary Encounters in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia . Syracuse University Press, Syracuse NY 2013, xv + 328 pp. ISBN 978-08-15-63315-0. US$39.95.
century, the early twentieth century, and the second half of the twentieth century. Within these ﬁve chapters, most single African countries, grouped by region (West, Central, South, and EastAfrica, Ethiopia and the North Africa/Middle East) are given due attention, in so far as relevant for that
[Kirchengeschichte in Einzeldarstellungen IV/8] (Heleen Murre-van den Berg) ................................................... 439 Paul V. Kollman, Th e evangelization of slaves and Catholic origins in EastAfrica [American Society of Missiology Series 38] (Martha Frederiks