Jason Mark Ward
Akihiro Yoshikawa, Kazuho Ikeo, Junichi Imoto, Wachirah Jaingam, Lily Surayya Eka Putri, Mardiansyah, Appukuttannair Biju Kumar and Akira Asakura
, the propodi. They are generally found on soft sediments (Asakura, 2005; Osawa & Fujita, 2008; Malay et al., 2018). However, the evolutionary relationships for habitat adaptation in these species have also not yet been clarified. In the present study, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of
The task of this chapter is twofold: Firstly, it examines whether the graphic narrative can, or should be, approached as an ‘open’ or plural text, pregnant with a multitude of possible interpretations rather than a singular definitive meaning. Secondly, it seeks to discern how the representational strategies of graphic narrative transform literary texts, attempting to provide a formal means of quantifying narrative adaptation in terms of addition, alteration, and loss. In order to address these seemingly diverse inquiries, the chapter draws upon the theory of polysemous textuality outlined in Roland Barthes’ essay S/Z, assessing the benefits and limitations that such a framework may bring to the analysis of the graphic narrative. Using the theoretical framework of S/Z to compare ‘The Song of Orpheus’ from Neil Gaiman’s Sandman to a translation of the Orpheus myth from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, I consider whether the medium specific properties of the graphic novel functionally limit the range of different possible readings, or if the addition of visual and temporal signifiers instead render the text somehow more ‘writerly’ through the explosion of intertextual referents. Through a systematic application to both works, the chapter explores whether Barthes’ five narrative codes are a relevant tool for the analysis of the graphic narrative specifically, and for the analysis of narrative adaptation more generally. Particular attention is paid to the transformation of the referential code, and how it contributes to the expansion of intertextual networks of adaptation and appropriation.
Partington notes that clothing produced by individual consumers through adaptation of patterns is contextualised as a watered down version of original couture. In its most reductive form, this notion characterises fashion as commercial and exploitative. Descriptors such as appropriation, imitation, copy and so forth have restricted the opportunity to understand fashion as a major global cultural form and institution. Therefore exploring and understanding the concept of adaptation will shift the attention from a superficial assessment of original versus imitation or copy to adaptation as a practice that provides a better framework for the understanding of designers’ and couturiers’ innovative practices and creativity, describing also the active engagement of consumers with fashion at the micro level. Adaptation can also provide a way to understand different historical shifts in the fashion system, from individual creative agency with home dressmaking and re-making to the explosion of the mass market and the consequent abandonment of such practices. Home dressmaking has been replaced by fashion remix of mass produced garments, a practice that thrives in our environment of globalised fast fashion. Thus this chapter suggests the need for a contextual requalification of concepts such as original, copy, imitation and copyright, and argues that these categories have been played against each other, but they are in fact interdependent. Today, big labels and conglomerates try to control knowledge and innovation through copyright, but, fashion escapes copyright because, in fashion, creativity is contextual. The institutionalisation of couture from 1868 served as a way to control knowledge about production processes in fashion; on the other hand, adaptation practices, often subversive, have been fundamental to the democratisation of fashion.
Shawn Edrei and Meyrav Koren-Kuik
The rise of posthumanism has had an undeniable effect on literary expressions of monstrosity: that which was once defined as Other, set in contrast to human subjectivity, has gradually been incorporated into human society without forfeiting its inhuman (or superhuman) qualities. In the age of the cyborg and the mutant, the monster has been demystified and made psychologically complex, rather than adhere to the archetypal ‘motiveless malignancy.’ Nowhere is this shift in perspective more apparent than in contemporary visual adaptations of fairy tales: in television and Japanese anime, in film and in comics, the body of the monster has been hybridised, the supernatural fear they are meant to evoke diluted by the pronunciation of their human qualities. Though their monstrosity is still physically inscribed upon them and invariably become visible to the naked eye, the spatial boundary that once separated human society from the realm of the monstrous (such as the foreboding woods) has dissolved completely; the monster has become a functioning member of community it is meant to prey upon. This chapter will explore physical/visual configurations of monstrosity in four fairy tale adaptations taken from different media: Grimm (television), Red Riding Hood (film), Fables (comics) and The Path (video games). Despite the vast differences in techniques and methodology, these visual media are uniform in their representation of the monster as a chimera of human and inhuman traits, and in their demonstration of new sensibilities towards depictions of the Other.
Xia Yan (1900–95), a very important leftist filmmaker in the 1930s, preferred film adaptation after 1949. This paper, by reading several of Xia Yan’s films written in the 1950s and 1960s against their literary sources, explores the changes he made to the sources and the strategies he used. It also outlines the different positions he took and the cultural history glimpsed through the films and Xia Yan’s role in them. This paper then analyzes how Xia Yan acted as a conformist vanguard repeating and re-enforcing the official ideology, as is shown in his adaptations of The New Year’s Sacrifice and Revolutionary Family. He was an ambivalent critic in the adaptation of The Lin Family Shop with its petite-bourgeois protagonist and its perhaps unintentional deconstruction of the official version of history. While, he reserved his humanistic concerns incognito for Hong Kong in the adaptation of Between Smiles and Tears.
Julio Gutiérrez G-H
Comics and films share some narrative codes related to conceptual inferences and what Scott McCloud terms ‘closure’. Analysing both graphic adaptation and film, an expected finding is that Muth performs the adaptation sharing some techniques from the film of Lang, but also innovating in his own medium through the use of line, page layout and language. Furthermore, I discuss Linda Hutcheon’s theory of adaptation, by taking into consideration the narrative codes that film and comics share and the way both media perform an ‘illusion of movement,’ each one in its own way. The interaction between comics and ‘audience’ not only as readers, but also as spectators through conceptual inferences puts comics into a hybrid status between printed and shown media. Hutcheon asserts that comic adaptations should be seen both as ‘told’ and ‘shown’ media. The chapter engages semiotic analysis to explore the role of the reader that includes actively constructing the narrative of graphic media.
ADAPTATIONS OF THE APERTURE IN TERRESTRIAL GASTROPOD-PULMONATE SHELLS by EDMUND GITTENBERGER (Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, P.O. Box 9516, NL 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands) ABSTRACT In gastropod shells, the aperture is the most vulnerable part. Various structures evolved
Jianli Xiong, Yanan Zhang, Yuanye Sun, Qiangqiang Liu, Chaojie Fan, Yao Min, Jianping Gou and Wanguang Chen
for our understanding of the physiological basis of altitudinal adaptation. The hematological parameters of seven hynobiid species have been previously reported (see table 3). Compared to these hynobiid salamanders, B. pinchonii has a lower leukocyte count, lower average values of erythrocyte count
LIFE HISTORY EVOLUTION IN GUPPIES: A MODEL SYSTEM FOR THE EMPIRICAL STUDY OF ADAPTATION by DAVID REZNICK (Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA) ABSTRACT I have used a diversity of observations and experiments to evaluate whether or not guppy life histories