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recognized), but the entire shore could be claimed as the property of a state, so long as it did not interfere with the usus Iurisgentium 135 . The shore thus appears to be a hybrid of public and common property. Grotius does this in part to accommodate an opinion of the juriscon- sult CeIsus, who had said

‘Usages and Customs of the Sea’

Étienne Cleirac and the making of maritime law in seventeenth-century France

Francesca Trivellato

tales about credit, but is neither a merchant manual nor a confessor manual. If its hybrid nature has relegated Us et coustumes de la mer to the margins of modern scholarship, its success at the time is evidence of the relevance of its undertaking: it translated and digested for a broad reading public

John Finlay

 105  NRS, CS181/4441, The opinion of the Attorney Generall of Ireland anent granting of Commissions , 6 Oct[obe]r 1711’.
 106  On this idea see J. Finlay, Jurisdictional complexity in post-Union Scotland , in: The Law’s Many Bodies, Studies in Legal Hybridity and Jurisdictional Complexity c. 1600

hypothec became actionable at a late stage in Roman law because otherwise it would form a fifth consensual contract. In his view it was in effect a consensual contract which, exceptionally, gave rise to real rights and was probably excluded from the scheme of consensual contracts by its hybrid nature. It

Jérôme Ferrand

tous les docteurs”, la chambre de l’édit décidait que la peine était due, ce qui revenait à ériger un simple avis au rang de sentence arbitrale. Cette décision témoignait de la volonté du Parlement de Paris de maîtriser la qualification d’actes hybrides afin qu’ils n’échappassent pas absolument à son

development, but offers criticism of particular rules and constructive suggestions for reform of the law. In his Introduction (pp. xm-xvt) R. first explains the hybrid nature of South African law, the 5. Vgl. Mayer-Maly, Der Ersitzungsbesitz am Sachbestandteil, SDHI 26 (1960) S. 176 ff. 6. Zur

gleichsam Gesetzeskraft ('zakonnaja sila') zu- kommen. Nach W. transformierte die Interaktion zwischen dem Zivil-Departement und den niederen Gerichten das russische Rechtssystem in ein Mischgebilde von zivilem und gemeinem Recht ('into a hybrid of the civilian and common law systems') (S. 54). Dies bedarf

Randall Lesaffer

contribution of the peace to modern international law can indeed be reduced to a post factum europeaniza- tion of the German constitutional and religious settlement and thus to the very particular triple or hybrid character of the treaties, or whether, on the contrary, the peace included important new or

Alain Wijffels

- oretical, scholarly treatise. The end result is a hybrid construction, which pro- vides a 'still' from the evolutionary process towards a specific treatment of the law of naval warfare and related subjects. With reference to an example of bio- logical evolution, the structure of the Hispallica Advocafio is

James L. Kateka

of states do not formulate reservations to bilateral treaties. The view was expressed that reservations to bilateral treaties could amount to bad faith in international relations. It was also a misnomer.86 The Special Rapporteur rejected sugges- tions of a "hybrid" in bilateral treaty reservations