In working toward a closer analysis of the experiences of youth citizenship, this chapter seeks to reconcile the concerns of two distinct discursive approaches to citizenship. The focus on civic competence in youth studies literature has been widely criticized for its narrow view of youth as uneducated and disengaged citizens in potentia. The central concern of such studies has been whether young people will be equipped with the essential knowledge to function as adults in democratic society, rather than how they actually do function as living citizens in everyday life. The focus on competence highlights the need to understand what it is young people know about how to be a citizen, yet it does not fully recognise how knowledge may be gleaned through the practice or doing of civic activities. Current discourses characterise the contemporary citizen in context, exploring how changing structures shape citizenship identities. Typologies such as Bang’s ‘expert citizen’ and Isin’s ‘neurotic citizen’ rightly argue that the scope for the doing of civic practice is limited by the reality of life within rapidly changing geo-political and social structures. They are less able to thoroughly consider how the individual’s own knowing and doing of civic life develop more nuanced and individual expressions of being a citizen. In examining the merits of these discourses, this chapter examines how these three dimensions of the being, doing and knowing of citizenship combine in developing youth citizenship identities. Further to this, the chapter discusses a preliminary methodology of a micro-sociological qualitative approach to understanding youth citizenship identities. In qualitatively examining young individuals’ own understandings of how they negotiate participation within and outside of formal democratic structures, this methodology allows for a more nuanced explanation of what constitutes working civic competence(s) and how it may be connected to citizenship identity.
Shawn Edrei and Meyrav Koren-Kuik
The rise of posthumanism has had an undeniable effect on literary expressions of monstrosity: that which was once defined as Other, set in contrast to human subjectivity, has gradually been incorporated into human society without forfeiting its inhuman (or superhuman) qualities. In the age of the cyborg and the mutant, the monster has been demystified and made psychologically complex, rather than adhere to the archetypal ‘motiveless malignancy.’ Nowhere is this shift in perspective more apparent than in contemporary visual adaptations of fairy tales: in television and Japanese anime, in film and in comics, the body of the monster has been hybridised, the supernatural fear they are meant to evoke diluted by the pronunciation of their human qualities. Though their monstrosity is still physically inscribed upon them and invariably become visible to the naked eye, the spatial boundary that once separated human society from the realm of the monstrous (such as the foreboding woods) has dissolved completely; the monster has become a functioning member of community it is meant to prey upon. This chapter will explore physical/visual configurations of monstrosity in four fairy tale adaptations taken from different media: Grimm (television), Red Riding Hood (film), Fables (comics) and The Path (video games). Despite the vast differences in techniques and methodology, these visual media are uniform in their representation of the monster as a chimera of human and inhuman traits, and in their demonstration of new sensibilities towards depictions of the Other.
The primary aim in my doctoral research programme was to explore the gap between intention and interpretation in painting. This was achieved in two ways. Firstly, by building a self-reflexive account of my intentions as a painter, analysed through repeated observations of home games at Fratton Park, Portsmouth Football Club, which were later combined into paintings. Secondly, I gathered and analysed interpretations of these paintings by focus groups. I structured these focus groups around Richard Wollheim’s notion of the ‘adequately informed’ spectator of painting. The gap between intention and interpretation is explored through the paintings that are my response to a particular cultural scene, and are then interpreted by those who are/are not familiar with it. The thesis demonstrates the development of a methodology for art practice that allows representational painting to be used as a tool for enquiry and as an embodiment of cultural knowledge. Visual research is expected to be part of an artist’s process and as a tutor I ask students to consider and explore methods and processes for their own practice and as part of their process, how their artefacts might be received and how in turn, this might affect their practice. My research project originates in my practice as a representational painter and teacher of visual research.
Alberto José Viralhadas Ferreira
In the 1980’s, at the edge of new digital media art and before massive online communication was available, communities of amateur musicians used 8-bit systems for sophisticated graphical demonstrations on extremely limited hardware. These communities were part of a sub-culture labelled as the ‘demo scene,’ which served as the hotbed for amateur musicians that, encouraged by the same DIY paradigm that fuelled the Punk movement, used sound loops to reformulate and repurpose mainstream music in a customised and technologically accessible manner. A community coalesced around music as an open technological artefact and pioneered the subversion of the traditional music industry production and distribution models as early as the 1980’s. Through shared and specific ethics and values, tracker communities encourage competitive learning that implicitly encourages a ‘tinkering’ approach to education. With a unique usage of cultural bricolage as a primary compositional methodology, their equalitarian principle of training as a peer activity, primarily based on common purpose and neutral authority, still stands as the anathema of artistic collectivisation, even after successive technological advancements. This chapter will focus on the sociological principles behind tracker communities and the relation between the digital music composition and the role of cultural artefacts in digital communities, especially in the light of post-modern music composition techniques and online music sharing.
Whilst academic research on trust in food proliferated after the food scares of the 1990s limited attention has been given to the evolution of perception of food safety and quality preceding these scandals. This chapter will focus on how representations and ideas of food safety and quality changed during the post-war era with respect to new food technologies. Building on the theory of risk society put forward by Ulrich Beck this study looks at how larger evolutions in society, technology, media, sub-politics and food interacted. In doing so, the research contributes to the understanding of the effects these changes had on the representation of expertise, products and technologies. In order to understand how new food technologies were represented and fit within a cultural framework, a Belgian newspaper and the publications of two consumer organisations are studied during 35 years, using the methodology of framing. The focus lies on two highly contested technologies: food radiation and food additives. This research shows that both the newspaper and the consumer organisations used specific emotionally guided framed to inform readers. The findings of this study offer a starting point for further studies on food quality and safety whilst providing a framework in which these issues can be viewed, understood and compared to. It also contributes to grasping the historical foundations of frameworks in which food and technology are interpreted.
Elizabeth L. Heck
Citizen journalism is a term often fraught with tensions surrounding definition, particularly since the evolution and accessibility of digital media tools, and the increase of user generated content (UGC). This chapter explores an initiative that is partnered with local community broadcasters, and engages with citizen journalism as part of a ‘pioneering new media journalism’ program. This professionally facilitated program uses new media technologies as a way of sharing stories from the community, and explores genres of traditional journalistic storytelling to those of a more personal autobiographical nature. Furthermore, it studies the importance of such facilitation in regard to issues of ethics and story co-creation and how the citizen journalist defines themselves and their role in the community. Questions arise as to how these grassroots stories can be shared, whether through radio broadcast and the internet or the mixed media of traditional print and QR codes. Using a case study methodology, this chapter addresses the experiments and learning generated by the various ways of telling these stories. In the process, it adopts the concept of participatory collaboration through the exploration of the experimental nature of community media and collaborative storytelling in such a program, to contribute to building and creating community narratives.
Ariella Van Luyn
Marcus Foth, Helen Klaebe and Greg Hearn state that ‘experiential narratives [those that combine public history, art and storytelling] are required to conceptualise and characterise the qualities of the city and to reawaken connection with place.’ However, little attention has been given to location-based narratives in regional areas. The recent development of digital tools that allow users to read narratives in-situ—such as Quick Response (QR) codes and interactive maps—offer new opportunities for engaging with stories of place. This chapter will examine a storytelling project, Fostering Storytelling in the Tropics, which uses digital tools to produce a series of locative narratives, and aims to strengthen reading and writing communities in North Queensland, Australia. As part of a larger project examining how creative writing academics can foster university-community engagement, emerging local writers will compose a series of stories set in specific locations around Townsville, Australia. Readers will use digital tools to read the stories in the location they are set. This chapter will contextualise the project in the initial stages of its development by analysing how locative literature can aid in the development of textual communities: the ‘reading, writing and publishing communities that form around printed texts.’ Participant Action Research methodology offers a framework for understanding how the creative writer-academic can facilitate community building through the use of digital tools.
This chapter deals with the empirical and theoretical shift from designing for the theatre to designing for a narrative environment, and to what extent a design for the stage is a narrative environment. If a theatrical text is a narrative, is a theatrical stage a narrative environment? First of all, let us define what a narrative environment is. It is a space, whether physical or virtual, in which stories can unfold. On the other hand, a theatre stage is an environment where stories can unfold, but dictated by speech and movement. Stories unfold in the theatre, usually in the form of a narration provided by the text, but the narrative can be provided by the stage design. In the case of a narrative environment the narration is either the space itself, or the space is being used as a major means to narrate the story. So really the space has the potential of acting both as the narrator and as the mouthpiece of the narrative. The major difference between scenography and a narrative environment design is that in the first case the text usually dictates the parameters of the design, whereas in narrative environment design the creative process is manipulated in order to fulfil a purpose. What is important to consider is how the interpretation of a narrative and the interpretation of a text/narration differ in methodology, outcome and the different ways the audience perceives and receives in each case.
Paulo Roberto Almeida
In his discursive way to construct his utterings, the subject selects the words and linguistic resources at his disposal, resources that are constructed socio-historically by other consciousnesses of which he is a part. This selection is lead by his evaluative judgement facing a particular topic at stake in interactional activity, loaded with expressiveness (way of viewing the world, value judgement, emotions). Taking as theoretical resources the concept of culture, this viewed as constituted in/by hybridism, the concept of literacies and the perspective of a ‘worker’ subject, this chapter aims at reflecting about the process of construction of narratives - literacy stories - produced by students enrolled in a training course for Portuguese language teachers. We focus the subjectivity manifestations, positions of authorship and their implications in the process of identity constitution. We think of identity constitution adopting the concept of identity as subject position; i.e., the position assumed by the subject will lead him to face the world from a particular position according to the images and specific concepts which become relevant inside the discursive practices. Upon this theoretical and methodological perspective, we will focus on the construction of subjective positions into a discursive process; in other words, the constitution of an identity position from the very constitution/construction of a position of authorship.
This chapter introduces a research project within Ulster University, which is in its very early stages. It seeks to make a significant contribution to our understanding of the role of older people and storytelling in the on-going conflict transformation process in Northern Ireland. The generation impacted by the conflict in and about Northern Ireland (40 years old and over), are ageing into mid- and late-adulthood in a context where the legacy of conflict remains important. Whilst no formal truth commission has been established, grass roots ‘storytelling’ projects have emerged from within the voluntary and community sector as one way of addressing the past. Projects use various terms to describe their storytelling work, such as ‘testimony’, ‘oral history’ and ‘positive encounter and dialogue’. Storytelling touches hearts and minds, and can be a powerful strategy and tool to help communities deal with the past, present and future. The overall aim of the research is to investigate the motivations of the ‘conflict generation’ to tell their stories and the impact of their doing so. This chapter sets out the proposed research methodology, which will involve a selection of storytelling groups associated with INCORE’s (International Conflict Research Institute) ‘Accounts of the Conflict Archive’1 and others of a similar dialogue and encounter nature. This chapter gives an overview of relevant literature and a timeline for implementation.