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D.A. Holwerda, A. De Zwaan, J.H. Kluytmans and D.I. Zandee

investigate metabolic pathways and their regulation in euryoxic marine and freshwater molluscs, especially of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L. This paper intends to provide, in a more or less chronological way, a survey of metabolic routes and regulation points through which sufficient metabolic energy is

Carl Smith

cannibalism of small broods may allow parental resources of time and energy to be reallocated to larger broods yielding a higher net return on parental investment. Complete brood cannibalism has been induced experimentally. Alternatively partial cannibalism by a male parent of some of its offspring may

G. De Jong, W. Scharloo and G.H. De Moed

two populations collected from France and Tanzania were com- pared. The rate of oxygen consumption per mg body weight increased with the relative rate of growth. Costs of growth (Cg), i.e., the increase in oxygen consumption due to growth, took 17.4% of the total energy invested in growth. No

R.J.A. Buwalda and R.C. Peters

information about the environment by detecting energetic disturbances, stimuli, emitted by distant or nearby stimulus sources. Stimulus sources can be animate or inanimate; the main property of interest here is the delivery of quanta of stimulus energy. These quanta of stimulus energy travel some distance

J.F.W. Nuboer, J.F. Wortel and F. Bretschneider

rabbit. With this method the ERG res- ponses to alternating stimulation by a reference and a test light are matched. The spectral sensitivity is derived from the reciprocal energy of the test light needed for this match. At low frequency stimulation (16 c/s) the spectral sensitivity was dominated by the

efficient conversion of low-value feeds into a high-value product. The conversion of the food energy into available energy is rather low, on the contrary available energy is converted in fish growth very efficiently, because maintenance expenditure is low. This is in sharp contrast with warm blooded animal

Mart M. Ottenheim, Bart A. Nolet, Pieter J. Van Der Veer and E.G.J. Evers

programming has been remarkably successful in predicting the diet choice of generalist herbivores. We used this technique to test the diet choice of free-living beavers (Castor fiber) in thc Biesbosch (The Netherlands) under different foraging goals, i.e. maximization of intake of energy, nitrogen, phosphorus

H. Biebach, J.M. Tinbergen and R.H. Drent

Verhaltensphysiologie, D-8138 Andechs, F. R. G.) SUMMARY Complementary studies on Starlings nesting on the Frisian island Schiermonnikoog included estimation of total energy expenditure of the parent birds, evaluation of the cost of incubation, experiments on the effect of manipulated nest temperature on in- cubation

Polly Boon, Serge Daan and G. Henk Visser

large bout of locomotor and feeding activity at the start of this period. Both overall weight gain and gross energy intake (GEI) were highest in group A and lowest in group C. Distribution of food intake throughout the daily feeding period was affected: group B and C consumed more food during the first

Wei-Qing Xu, Wei-Guo Du and Xiang Ji

residual yolk dry mass also explained much of the difference in lipid mass, energy contents and residual yolk ash mass between miniaturized and control hatchlings. KEY WORDS: Reptilia, Squamata, Elapidae, Naja naja atra, egg manipulation, hatchling, incubation. INTRODUCTION In reptiles that lay a varying