In recent decades, alternatives to the established bubonic-plague theory have been presented as to the microbiologcal identity and mechanism(s) of spread of historical plague epidemics. In this monograph, the six important alternative theories are intensively discussed in the light of the historical sources, the central primary studies and standard works on bubonic plague and the alternative microbiological agents, insofar as they are testable. These seven theories are incompatible and at least six of them must be untenable. In the author’s opinion, the arguments against the bubonic-plague theory and for all alternative theories are untenable. This monograph therefore also has been written also as a standard work on bubonic plague, giving a broad and in-depth presentation of the medical, epidemiological and historical evidence and the methodological tenets for identification of historical diseases by comparison with modern medical knowledge.
This book offers a fundamental reassessment of the origins of a central court in Scotland. It examines the early judicial role of Parliament, the development of “the Session” in the fifteenth century as a judicial sitting of the King’s Council, and its reconstitution as the College of Justice in 1532. Drawing on new archival research into jurisdictional change, litigation and dispute settlement, the book breaks with established interpretations and argues for the overriding significance of the foundation of the College of Justice as a supreme central court administering civil justice. This signalled a fundamental transformation in the medieval legal order of Scotland, reflecting a European pattern in which new courts of justice developed out of the jurisdiction of royal councils.
possible confessional declination of the concept) and the development of a critical attitude towards the text, through a process of study, interpretation and adaptation. This transformation has however often been geographically restricted to Protestant countries 5 and chronologically placed in the
Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679) was the most prolific poet and playwright of his age. During his long life, roughly coinciding with the Dutch Golden Age, he wrote over thirty tragedies. He was a famous figure in political and artistic circles of Amsterdam, a contemporary and acquaintance of Grotius and Rembrandt, and in general well acquainted with Latin humanists, Dutch scholars, authors and Amsterdam burgomasters. He fuelled literary, religious and political debates. His tragedy 'Gysbreght van Aemstel', which was played on the occasion of the opening of the stone city theatre in 1638, was to become the most famous play in Dutch history, and can probably boast holding the record for the longest tradition of annual performance in Europe. In general, Vondel’s texts are literary works in the full sense of the word, complex and inexhaustive; attracting attention throughout the centuries.
Contributors include: Eddy Grootes, Riet Schenkeveld-van der Dussen, Mieke B. Smits-Veldt, Marijke Spies, Judith Pollmann, Bettina Noak, Louis Peter Grijp, Guillaume van Gemert, Jürgen Pieters, Nina Geerdink, Madeleine Kasten, Marco Prandoni, Peter Eversmann, Mieke Bal, Maaike Bleeker, Bennett Carpenter, James A. Parente, Jr., Stefan van der Lecq, Jan Frans van Dijkhuizen, Helmer Helmers, Kristine Steenbergh, Yasco Horsman, Jeanne Gaakeer, and Wiep van Bunge.
)Made in China: Shakespeare in the Twenty-First Century,” discusses a number of adaptations of Shakespeare plays (e.g. Macbeth, Coriolanus , and Richard III ) and argues that appropriation and adaptation of the work of England’s greatest playwright both breathed new life into productions of his oeuvre
the invention of new terms ( capitalism ); in the adaptation and alteration (indeed at times reversal) of older terms ( society or individual ); in extension ( interest ) or transfer ( exploitation ). But also, as these examples should remind us, such changes are not always either simple or final
manuscripts from the late fourteenth to the early sixteenth centuries. 3 However, even this large number does not include the total textual production. For instance, French adaptations of the Gospels of Nicodemus that were widely read – as will be discussed below – have not been included in this number
our kingdoms and territories by those journeying in the said ocean sea.’ In Davenport F.G. (ed.), European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648 (Washington, DC: 1917) 103–105. Slight adaptation of the English translation. 26 See Sandman A., “Spanish
being the symbol of an authentic overturning seemed to be translations and adaptations of some of the most important Dutch periodicals of the time: the Bibliothèque universelle et historique (1686–1693) directed by the Genevan theologian Jean Le Clerc (1657–1736), and mostly the ambitious Histoire
Controversy: a Study in Adaptations (Cambridge, MA Press, 1982), 211. 36 John Marshall, John Locke: Resistance, Religion and Responsibility (Cambridge, 1994), 454. 37 Daniel Carey, Locke, Shaftesbury and Hutcheson: Contesting Diversity in the Enlightenment and Beyond (Cambridge, 2006). 38 Ann Talbot