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Dorit Alt and Nirit Raichel

education is now fundamentally implicated in the practice of citizenship. (pp. 14–15) This definition refers to a new variety of digital media literacy skills adapted to the developing democratic societies’’ demands of its citizens. Those skills include reading and writing, speaking and listening, knowing


Joanne Addison

skepticism and high level of new media usage might suggest a critical turn away from the current propaganda function of much mainstream news media. 1 However, such a critical turn requires a level of media literacy that goes beyond skepticism. Early indications suggest that our youth may not be well

Teresa Podlesney

In The Sense of an Ending, Frank Kermode reminds us that ‘[f]ictions, notably the fiction of apocalypse, turn easily into myths; people will live by that which was designed only to know by’. When the hermeneutic function of contemporary apocalyptic narratives is recovered, they can be interrogated to reveal the contemporary social, political, and environmental contexts that give rise to ideas of a 21st-century apocalypse. Engaging students in critical thinking about apocalypse through the study of contemporary movies produces an understanding of how our popular entertainments document and re-imagine real-world concerns. Historicizing and deconstructing narratives of 21st-century apocalypse also fosters students’ historical self-awareness and sense of agency, opening dialogue on how we can co-create more equitable and sustainable systems for living in and through the complex now. Articulating the cultural power of apocalypse cinema as both ‘structure of feeling’ and ‘framework of intelligibility’, this chapter outlines three interlocking strategies for apocalypse cinema and/as transformative pedagogy: developing media literacy skills, fostering an awareness of living history, and taking zombies seriously.

Democracy 2.0

Media, Political Literacy and Critical Engagement


Edited by Paul R. Carr, Michael Hoechsmann and Gina Thésée

Participatory media 2.0 have shifted the terrain of public life. We are all—individually and collectively—able to produce and circulate media to a potentially limitless audience, and we are all, at minimum, arbiters of knowledge and information through the choices—or clicks—we make when online. In this new environment of two-way and multidimensional media flow, digital communication tools, platforms and spaces offer enormous potential for the cultivation, development and circulation of diverse and counter-hegemonic perspectives. It has also provoked a crisis of communication between oppositional “echo chambers.”

Democracy requires a functioning, critically-engaged and literate populace, one that can participate in, cultivate and shape, in meaningful and critical ways, the discourses and forms of the society in which it exists. Education for democracy, therefore, requires not only political literacy but also media and digital literacies, given the ubiquity and immersiveness of Media 2.0 in our lives.

In Democracy 2.0, we feature a series of evocative, international case studies that document the impact of alternative and community use of media, in general, and Web 2.0 in particular. The aim is to foster critical reflection on social realities, developing the context for coalition-building in support of social change and social justice. The chapters herein examine activist uses of social and visual media within a broad and critical frame, underpinning the potential of alternative and DIY (Do It Yourself) media to impact and help forge community relationships, to foster engagement in the civic and social life of citizens across the globe and, ultimately, to support thicker forms of democratic participation, engagement and conscientization, beyond electoralist, representative, normative democracy.

Priya Chadha

Adolescents constitute a fifth of the world’s population. Adolescents have twenty-four hours media access and, being the most vulnerable, prefer watching television to any kind of physical activity. Physical activity plays an imperative role in the overall development of adolescents. Television viewing for long hours leads to decreased physical activity. The objectives of the study were to examine television use by adolescents for the purpose of entertainment and information in government and private schools as well as the association between television viewing and physical activity of adolescents. The study was done on a sample size of 400 adolescents aged 12-19 years studying in government and private schools in the city of Chandigarh. 200 male and 200 female adolescents were divided into two age groups, i.e. 12-15 and 16-19 years. The data was collected by way of a survey method using a self–constructed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done on SPSS using tools like chi-square test, central tendency (mean); dispersion (standard deviation) and paired t- test to show the results on the basis of hours divided in four categories, i.e. very often (4 or more hours a day), quite often (2-4), seldom (0-2) and never (0). Results from the findings indicate that adolescents were mainly watching television for an entertainment purpose. Adolescents of 12-15 years were watching less television than 16-19 years adolescents. It was further revealed that private school adolescents in the age group of 12-15 years were more involved in physical activity. However, as age progresses difference fade out. It goes without saying that the role of media is going to increase manifold in the years to come, therefore, the paper through review of literature also addresses the need of teaching media literacy to adolescents so that they become critical consumers of media and media messages.


Allison T. Butler

throughout this text that work in media literacy is a necessary part of education because it can foster the space for a more thoroughly informed and involved citizenry. Media literacy does not operate on its own, however. The key argument in this text is that education in media literacy needs to begin with

Martin Roth

distant servers, and regularly accept licensing agreements for these products and services without reading them. I have described this elsewhere as media use under conditions of a ‘suspension of media literacy’ (Roth 2018). This observation is based on an understanding of media literacy as consisting of


Allison T. Butler

inspired students to the best talent show performance ever. These teachers and media figures of past and present, from fiction and non-fiction, can teach us a lot about media literacy. Why are these texts produced and what makes them entertaining? What is our responsibility as audiences of these texts

Engagement with the Mainstream Media and the Relationship to Political Literacy

The Influence of Hegemonic Education on Democracy1


Paul R. Carr, Gary W. J. Pluim and Lauren Howard

democratic society and the individuals within it to demand more meaningful representation of its citizenry and their perspectives in mainstream media, to source and rely on local and alternative media wherever possible, and to ensure that their own media literacy is cultivated in a way that reflects their