Considering the urban environment of the city as a cultural generator connected to food production and consumption habits, this chapter investigates the everyday life practices relating to food as connected to the archetypical architectural food spaces of the domestic kitchen, the café, the market, and the street, through a comparison between Australian and Italian contexts. Assuming food and food culture to have theatrical and symbolic aspects connected to space, the paper argues the significance of such media as graphic advertising, cookbooks, television shows and movies as vehicles for the understanding of the social, economic and cultural transmission in relation to food space. The links between society, culture, rural and urban landscape, slowness and fastness of society, will be analysed through those media, advancing then the necessity to build a scheme capable of mapping the relationships between those factors, in order to visualise the present condition and predict future potential scenarios within a perspective of food equity and environmental sustainability. Drawing on recent methodological advances, the chapter will explore the insights offered through the representations of food production and consumption in the Australian and Italian contexts from the domestic to the urban scale. This discussion will suggest that gastronomy can be seen as a tool for transforming the built environment. Considering then the theoretical studies of mapping in the work of architects and graphic designers, on these premises the chapter will present hypothetical models for the mapping of food culture and its relationship to the transformation of the built environment.
Virgínia Laís Souza
This research aims to analyse how the stigmata of the body have been perpetuated since the freak shows of the nineteenth century. During this period, exhibits of monstrous bodies began to be used to entertain the audience, becoming particularly popular in Europe and the United States. The main hypothesis of this research is that the use of the image of a body that is viewed as marginal in society, further reinforces its stigmatization, and this trend becomes stronger when allied to a market logic of profits and to reach masses. Representations conveyed by different contexts are discussed in the present research (especially in show, film and art). In terms of methodology, two ways of constructing the monstrous body were highlighted: the first and most common understands the body as eccentric product with the ability to increase the popularity ratings of the media where they are presented; the second avoids stigmatizing the body as abnormal by highlighting their singularities and proposing a redefinition of stereotypes. The theoretical discussion is based on research that has discussed the relations of the body with different environments, understanding the image of the body as a construction and never as a presupposition. The expected result is to collaborate with debates that study the role of the body in the society, without, however, failing to recognize the body as bodymedia.
The gap existing between the democratic system and the individual can distance a person from participating in the political process. Principles that form the foundation of a democratic system can also be applied to everyday life, and conversely, individual life experiences can shape the political process. Interactive, experiential workshops play a large role in linking these two spheres, connecting the individual to the system through the group process. The Betzavta seminar, invented and developed by the Adam Institute in Israel, uses games and interactive activities to explore the democratic decision-making process in a more personal way, thereby giving the participants a more fundamental understanding of democracy. This helps them to view democracy not only as a system in which they function but as a way of life, in which they can reflect on their own roles and responsibilities. The Betzavta seminar best functions as an immersive experience, rather than a series of disjointed workshops. However, in this chapter, one example of such a workshop will be detailed and analyzed to show the connection between the individual, group, and democratic system. The very writing of a paper to prove this point negates its thesis, and therefore an experience of the Betzavta methodology is highly recommended.
Mira Marcinów and Fátima Alves
Comparing Portugal and Poland, in this chapter we reveal and discuss the socio-cultural processes that we believe to underlie the impacts of the confrontation and coexistence of plural models used to explain and deal with madness, between tradition and modernity. Based on a study carried out in Portugal, we compare how lay people explain and deal with madness and mental suffering in both countries. Results show that the concept of mental illness includes one of illness (there are ill people), and the one of non-illness (mental suffering is not an illness). Lay rationalities about mental suffering in Portugal and Poland also reflect the process of psychiatrisation (medicalisation) of societies: lay people use the professional taxonomies, but often with different meanings. In Portugal and Poland, those rationalities categorise people into three kinds: the ill people, the weak-people (these may turn into ill-people) and the strong-people (these succeed in the combat with mental suffering, a normal event during life). In what concerns mental illness, almost all respondents, both Portuguese and Poles, identify such disease as depression and schizophrenia. Moreover, there were also differences: only Portuguese talk about dementia, and only Poles talk about alcoholism as mental illness. We also compare the identified causes of mental suffering and the ways that people use to deal with it - the itineraries of care. The results we gathered, only possible with the qualitative methodology, exceed results of previous researches about social perception and representation of people with mental illness. In fact, it occurs that these narratives contain wide conceptions about the different level of mental suffering and craziness, with modern and traditional elements.
Patrick E. Sharbaugh
With more than 30% of the world’s population now connected to the Internet, online personal privacy has become a top concern among citizens of many nations and regions, and it has become clear that attitudes about and conceptions of online privacy represent a nexus of significant change in the construction of culture and society. These attitudes and conceptions may differ significantly across cultures and national borders, therefore examining different notions of privacy may better enable us to understand the changes underway. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, I undertook an exploratory study into two research questions: 1) How do Internet users in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam understand and conceive of online personal privacy?, and 2) How concerned are they about online privacy? Rather than imposing Western definitions of privacy on local respondents, I attempted to infer a definition of Vietnamese privacy values and conceptions from scratch using methods designed to avoid priming respondents with non-local perceptions of the research topic. The results reveal a more complex conception of personal privacy than those predicted for Vietnam by Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture. In Vietnam, privacy appears to be chiefly understood as a means of safeguarding valuable personal data on the Internet from dangerous individuals who seek to obtain it for malign purposes, rather than a fundamental right, an inviolable aspect of self, or a claim by individuals to be left alone and free from surveillance. Vietnamese appear unconcerned about governmental or organisational scrutiny, and seem to have little regard for privacy policies or regulations. In this, the Vietnamese conception of online privacy appears to differ significantly from longstanding notions of privacy that have informed discourse, social practice, and regulatory efforts in the Western hemisphere for more than a century and which continue to influence current debates and policy decisions.
Karen McInnes and Nicola Birdsey
Play as a concept is complex and often contested despite the fact that it is claimed that we know play when we see it. There have been considerable attempts by theorists to define play such as by: category, typology, criteria, and continuum. However, it has been stated that it is difficult to have a common conceptualisation or definition of play. While there is a considerable body of literature on defining play by theorists, there is far less literature on understanding play from the perspectives of different professionals, parents, adolescents, and children. There is a growing research base of early years practitioners’ understanding of play and how this relates to practice; however, there is a lack of research on the understanding of play from the perspective of other professionals. There is also limited research on parents’ and adolescents’ perspectives of play. There is, however, an emerging literature on children’s perspectives of play but it is not yet known how their perspectives differ from the perceptions of adults. It is important to have a shared understanding of play for three reasons: so that there is a common language with which to talk about play, so that the same phenomenon is investigated by researchers, and so that there is clarity in relation to play practice. This chapter draws on a series of case studies which have employed a range of methodologies including: questionnaires, interviews and experiments to identify perceptions of play in relation to the aforementioned groups. As well as identifying similarities and differences in perceptions of play across the different groups, the implications for practice and future research are identified.
The reference point for the following discussion is that Western culture's concept of feminine Beauty has a genuine function in visual arguments. The purpose of this chapter is to show one such function through the allegorical uses of depictions of truth. One of the most common Western iconographic representations of truth is through a beautiful, naked, radiant woman with her right hand holding up a torch or a mirror. The Iconologia (1593) by the Italian iconographer Cesare Ripa, Truth Unveiled by Time (1652) by the Italian sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini, and The Truth (1870) by the French painter Jules Joseph Lefebvre are a few examples. These artworks communicate a visual argument while using the allegorical function of the image of truth as a mean to illustrate an abstract concept or idea. This chapter analyses how visual arguments have made use of iconographic conventions of truth in order to accommodate for more complex concepts and ideas. The methodological approach is akin to Wittgenstein’s approach to philosophy, i.e., in order to understand the function of beauty in visual argumentation in general, one has to look to the actual uses to which the aesthetic and argumentative vocabulary is put. More specifically, one should focus attention on what actually does make the notion of ‘beauty’ function argumentatively in specific contexts. In order to see how beauty is adhered to truth, one must analyse its actual usages. Thus, the Dreyfus affair will be discussed as a case study, in which the allegorical representation of the figure of Truth has a substantial argumentative function.
Urban experience is a process formed with the city dweller’s interactions of all parameters of space. In this chapter, the relation between playing phenomena, experience and time is held. The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of fragmented perceptions of time as a consequence of identification of metropolitan life with speed and movement concepts. Dialectics of body with experience and time are examined through the playing theme, which was argued to be a form of experience and a special form of communication as well. Thus, spatiality of playing actions and time with the phenomenon of place (dwelling) is critical. Taking one’s relationship with time and space as the focus, settling in the present time is the moment of existence for a dweller that is aware of how time flows within the past and future. Therefore, spatial experience is related to settling in the present time. From this point of view, a place where dwellers can or cannot settle in present time was researched. Personal observations and mapping in the metropolis of Istanbul was used as the methodology. Eventually, homogeneity of temporality in urban space prevented the dialectic between the city and its dwellers. The functional organisation of urban planning tended to eliminate differences to obtain spatial experiences by creating homogeneous spaces. Together with its obstacle of extending to the urban experience, the unreadable character of the present time of produced spaces within their past and future brought the perception of time to a standstill with its fragmented existence. From this point of view, with guiding playing phenomena that invited dwellers to its own space and time, various urban toys were designed to set up the spatiality of playing in the metropolis to gather dwellers in the same place and settle them in the present time to extend out of their usual experiences.
The recent mainstreaming of Street Art has afforded Street Artists unprecedented means with which to develop their practices. As a result, I argue that this movement is occupying a new place both inside and outside the art institution that addresses Street Art’s traditional critiques of consumerism, politics, neocapitalism/neoliberalism, but through unprecedented ways such as through institutional sponsorship and by adopting philanthropic postures, thereby complicating the ethos of traditional Street Art. In late 2011, on the cosmopolitan Rua de Avenida de Paulista, next to the Museo Arte Sao Paulo de Chateaubriand stood a piece by Swoon; a Street Artist from New York City. Its title, Encampment Ersilia, refers to Italo Calvino’s invisible and mobile city, which is notable for the ever-increasing connections that are forged between its inhabitants. In order to highlight this shift in Street Art practice, I will use this piece as a central case study in this paper. Swoon’s Encampment Ersilia is part community centre, part homeless shelter, part artwork, and attracted a myriad audience. Swoon intended the site to operate as 'a new city (…) a delicate quiet song, a temporary freedom, a meeting place where words stitch a new reality and children are born in unexpected ways'. Despite the potentially grandiose naïveté of this desire, Swoon’s installation did in fact function as a micro city. Though, the work was temporary. It functioned as part of Swoon’s overarching methodology of place-making; each piece she makes, is arguably conversant in an ongoing dialogue that links her entire practice. This work departs from Swoon’s early wheat-pasting work on the streets, but uses the same modalities of Street Art: its activation is dependent on the street, it is temporary, it is meant to bring people together. In my paper, I will discuss the consequences of this departure in the work of Swoon and other contemporary Street Artists.
Anna-Marie Jansen van Vuuren and Jane D. Stamp
The focus of this chapter is to compare the traditional storytelling narrative model of the Hero’s Journey, a popular structure in screenwriting, to a chemical engineering methodology. In chemical engineering, cheap raw materials are transformed into a complete product which is more useful and valuable to society. In the same way, in the Hero’s Journey story structure, through overcoming various tasks the hero is refined and transformed. Thus the narrative structure with its roots in ancient mythology can be modelled on a multiproduct time dependent batch process that is used in a traditional beer brewing method. When one applies this to the narrative of brewing - the malt will serve as the protagonist, and similar to the protagonist in the Hero’s Journey who faces many obstacles on his way of achieving the resurrection, the malt in the batch process has to go through various steps to become the elixir. Both the malt and the main character of a story need to go on a journey of transformation to become the finished product. The beer making procedure follows a recipe and even though the processing stages are essentially the same, similar to the process of change of the protagonist within the Hero’s Journey – each hero will undergo processing in a slightly different way – and come out as a distinct product at the end. When one considers brewing from the point of view of a storyteller, the complexity of the process is made available to a broader audience. In comparing these seemingly unrelated processes – the art of brewing is revealed. Often viewed as a scientific process without the nuance of creativity, the comparison with storytelling establishes clearly that it is an art form on its own.