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E.A. Wheeler, P. Baas and S. Rodgers

Information from the Inside Wood database (5,663 descriptions) was used to determine the relative abundance of selected IAWA Hardwood List Features, for the whole world and for the broad geographic regions used in the IAWA List. Features that occur in more than 75 % of the records are: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent, diffuse porosity, exclusively simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pitting, and non-septate fibers. The geographic distribution of vessel element features found in this study is consistent with previous studies: ring porosity is a Northern Hemisphere adaptation; numerous, narrow, short vessel elements are more common in temperate regions than in tropical regions. Element size is related to habit, with few wide vessels being a syndrome that is virtually absent from shrubs and small trees. The co-occurrence of selected features, ones that earlier have been suggested to be correlated, was examined; e.g., tangential vessel arrangement and ring porosity, rare axial parenchyma and septate fibers, tracheids and exclusively solitary vessels that are of medium to wide diameter. Axial parenchyma features show geographic variation, with aliform to confluent parenchyma and bands more than 3 cells wide being primarily tropical in occurrence. Storied rays, crystals, and silica bodies are more common in the tropics than in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. For ray features, geographic patterns are less apparent. In Australia, incidences of some features (vestured pits, solitary vessels, radial/diagonal vessel arrangement) are influenced by the Myrtaceae being a major component of the flora. This paper is but a general overview. Information from the Inside Wood database when combined with detailed information on ecological and geographical distributions of species, and subjected to more robust statistical analyses can be used to address a variety of questions on the evolution of wood structure and the ecological and phylogenetic significance of suites of features.

S. Noshiro and P. Baas

The wood anatomy of Comaceae, Alangiaceae, Garryaceae, and Nyssaceae constituting the Comales in the sense of Cronquist (1981, 1988) is described in great detail and subjected to a cladistic analysis. A microscopic identification key to the woods studied is given. The alliance includes seventeen genera, mostly of trees and shrubs, very rarely herbs. Although wood anatomically fairly homogeneous, variation exists in both qualitative and quantitative characters. Some of the latter show distinct latitudinal trends within individual genera, and character states have only been recognised taking their latitudinal dependencies into account. The character states ultimately recognised in these continuously varying quantitative characters coincide with intergeneric or intersectional gaps. The cladistic analysis based on a datamatrix with twentyone characters (Table 3) and using Cereidiphyllum, Daphniphyllum, and Hamamelis as outgroups yielded a strict consensus tree with a quadrichotomy with two monophyletic clades, Hydrangea panieulata (a representative of the closely allied Hydrangeaceae) and Daphniphyllum (Fig. 81). One weakly supported clade includes Alangium, Camptotheea, Cornus, Curtisia, Davidia, Diplopanax, Mastixia, and Nyssa without any robust lineages among them. The other genera, Aralidium, Aueuba, Corokia, Garrya, Griselinia, Helwingia, Melanophylla and Toricellia, constitute a second, well-supported clade. Two Hydrangea taxa included in the analysis nest in the second clade and a basal branching respectively. The wood anatomical diversity pattern thus supports a family concept of Comaceae including Cornus, Curtisia, Diplopanax, Mastixia, Alangiaceae, and Nyssaceae, and exclusion of the genera in the other clade. There is remarkable agreement between some of these wood anatomical r~sults and recent cladistic analyses of rbcL sequences by Xiang and co-workers. The infrageneric classification of Cornus, Alangium and Nyssa is also discussed.

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

Master of the Minuscule

Lesley Robertson, Jantien Backer, Claud Biemans, Joop van Doorn, Klaas Krab, Willem Reijnders, Henk Smit and Peter Willemsen

In Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Master of the Minuscule, the Father of Microbiology is presented in the context of his time, relationships and the Dutch Golden Age. Although he lacked an academic education, he dedicated his life to investigating the microscopic world using handmade, single-lensed microscopes and magnifiers. An expert observer, he planned experiments and designed equipment to test his theories. His pioneering discoveries included blood cells, protozoa, bacteria and spermatozoa, and resulted in an international reputation among the scientific and upper classes of 17th and 18th century Europe, aided by his Fellowship of the Royal Society of London.

This lavishly illustrated biography sets his legacy of scientific achievements against the ideas and reactions of his fellow scientists and other contemporaries.

Pieter Baas and Elisabeth Wheeler

in a “Bulletin” seriously enough for career advancement, despite the fact that the Science Citation Index had spontaneously awarded the IAWA Bulletin an impact factor in 1990. From the seventies onwards the name of our periodical has been a subject of debate – numerous alternatives such as “Wood and

Kelly Cristina Moreira dos Santos, Gabriel Uriel Cruz Araújo dos Santos, Claudia Franca Barros, Haroldo Cavalcante de Lima and Cátia Henriques Callado

dyes, preservatives and clarifier of wines (Corrêa 1984; Almeida et al. 1998 ). According to Souza-Kaneshima et al. (2016), S. adstringens is disappearing from the regions of Southern Brazil due to excessive extraction. The taxonomic relations within Stryphnodendron have been subject of study

Md Hasnat Rahman, Kayo Kudo, Shahanara Begum, Yusuke Yamagishi, Takahiro Muraishi, Satoshi Nakaba, Yuichiro Oribe, Chanhui Lee, Hyun-O Jin and Ryo Funada

Edited by Lloyd Donaldson

the field nursery of Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology in Fuchu, Tokyo (35.684 °N, 139.479 °E). The seedlings were subjected to sequential observations of cambial activity and the differentiation of xylem for studies of the role of auxin during the transition from dormant to active

Serena Antonucci, Sergio Rossi, Fabio Lombardi, Marco Marchetti and Roberto Tognetti

et al. 2013 ; Cuny et al. 2014 ). The majority of research on this subject has been conducted comparing xylogenesis with environmental factors. Indeed, temperature and water availability are recognised as determinants of meristem phenology ( Delpierre et al. 2016 ) and tree growth ( Fatichi et

Oscar Troncoso and Alina Greslebin

reaction. The possible involvement of effectors secreted by the pathogen for stimulating trabeculae formation is a subject that deserves to be addressed in future studies. The results of this work, based on the high frequency of trabeculae in diseased trees and the absence in healthy ones from the same

Brett A. Bergman, Edward G. Bobich, Stephen D. Davis, Yasuhiro Utsumi and Frank W. Ewers

: 61 – 72 . DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01309.x . Ruzin SE . 1999 . Plant microtechnique and microscopy . Oxford University Press . Salleo S , Lo Gullo MA . 1986 . Xylem cavitation in nodes and internodes of whole Chorisia insignis H . B. et K. plants subjected

J. Julio Camarero

Edited by Victoria De Micco

. halepensis was sampled in six sites; Q. ilex was sampled in three sites; J. Thurifera , P. sylvestris and Q. faginea were sampled in two sites). In the most xeric sites subjected to semi-arid conditions (Peñaflor, Retuerta de Pina, and Valcuerna sites; Table 1 ) the dominant tree species is Aleppo