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Jianying Bai, Xin He, Yi Jiang, Tao Zhang and Min Bao

presented on the goggles screens. In the head movement condition, subjects rotated their heads back and forth in the horizontal plane, with the head movement data tracked in real-time by a three-space sensor. The graphs in (b) show the stimuli in Experiment 1a. The red and blue arrows show the directions of

Ilkka Ruostetsaari

1990s have exerted the most effect on the political elite; indeed, this elite group has moved closer to other elites in terms of social background and horizontal mobility. Finally, how can we relate the changes in the Finnish elite structures to that of Scandinavian countries? In terms of history

QIU Bin, YANG Shuai, XIN Peijiang and Berna KIRKULAK

This paper analyses total factor productivity (TFP) of China’s manufacturing sector and its decomposed indexes, i.e., technological progress and technological efficiency by employing Malmquist productivity index based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. Using panel data of domestic manufacturing sector in China from 2000 to 2005, we estimate the influences of horizontal and vertical linkages on TFP and its decomposition indexes by controlling R&D and exports indexes of domestic manufacturing sector. The empirical results show that R&D and exports have a positive effect on TFP and that FDI inflows lead to positive spillovers significantly in general mainly through technological progress resulting from backward linkages; however, forward linkages have no technology spillover effect while horizontal linkages promote TFP through technological efficiency which has quite different influencing modes compared to that of backward and forward linkages. The grouping regression results also show that FDI technology spillovers have different conductive mechanisms under different technological levels, industry concentrations and export dependency indexes.

Xihong Qian, Wanli Xu and Kongyue Li

Against the backdrop of China’s traditional culture and economic transition, the effect of entrepreneurs’ social networks on enterprise growth has become an important topic attracting attention from both academics and practitioners. This paper decomposes entrepreneurs’ social networks into three dimensions: the external horizontal social network representing inter-firm relationship, external vertical social network in the form of interactions between enterprises and the government, and internal vertical social network referring to entrepreneurs’ control over enterprise operation. Results based on data from the Pearl River Delta reveal that all of the three dimensions of social network exert a positive impact on enterprise growth. The external horizontal social network plays the most influencing role, while the effects of the other two kinds of networks cannot be neglected either.

Sha Jiang, Tamaki Honma, Teruko Nakamura, Ikuo Furukawa and Fukuju Yamamoto

The present study deals with roles of gibberellins (GAs) in gravitropic responses of woody sterns of horizontally-positioned, 2-year-old seedling of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. var.japonica Maxim. The application of uniconazole-P, an inhibitor of GAs biosynthesis, to stern nodes at various concentrations significantly inhibited not only righting the sterns but also wood formation. The application of GAs (GA3 and GA4) in combination with uniconazole-P negated the inhibitory effect of the treatment of uniconazole-P alone. The GAs alone did not affect wood formation, however, both GAs increased wood formation on both the upper and lower sides of horizontal sterns with an increase in the concentration of combined uniconazole-P. In all of the seedlings, tension wood was formed on the upper side of sterns. The application of uniconazole-P alone at various concentrations did not inhibit the formation of tension wood fibres.

Patrice Voss, Patrice Voss, Vanessa Tabry, Patrice Voss, Vanessa Tabry and Robert J. Zatorre

While vision has been shown to play an important role in calibrating the spatial representations of other senses (Knudsen and Knudsen, 1990; Withington et al., 1994), numerous recent reports have suggested that individuals deprived of vision are actually able to develop heightened auditory spatial abilities (Lessard et al., 1998; Voss et al., 2004). However, most such cases have compared the blind to blindfolded sighted individuals, a procedure that might introduce a strong performance bias in that blind individuals, who have had their whole lives to adapt to this condition, whereas sighted individuals might be put at a severe disadvantage when suddenly being asked to localize sounds without visual input. To address this unknown, we compared the sound localization ability of eight sighted individuals with and without blindfold using a 3D sound presentation device in a hemianechoic chamber. We used a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, where we compared two vision conditions (blindfold vs. non-blindfold), two sound planes (horizontal vs. vertical) and two pointing methods (finger vs. head). A 2 × 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant effect of vision (no-blindfold > blindfold; p<0.001) and a significant effect of plane (horizontal > vertical; p<0.001). Moreover, a vision × plane × pointing triple interaction was also significant (p=0.004), and was primarily driven by a significantly poorer performance of head pointing in the horizontal plane when blindfolded, compared to the non-blindfolded condition. This result argues strongly against the use of head pointing methodologies with blindfolded individuals, particularly in the horizontal plane, as it likely introduces a robust bias when comparing them to blind individuals.

Ophelia Deroy, Ophelia Deroy, Irene Fasiello, Ophelia Deroy, Irene Fasiello, Vincent Hayward, Ophelia Deroy, Irene Fasiello, Vincent Hayward and Malika Auvray

We investigated some spontaneous crossmodal correspondences between audition and touch both in blind and sighted people. In four experiments, we tested the interactions between the direction of tactile movement (proximal–distal vs. distal–proximal movement on the fingertip) and change in auditory frequency (increasing vs. decreasing pitch). We measured the compatibility effect between congruent stimuli (proximal–distal tactile movements and increasing pitch, or distal–proximal tactile movement and decreasing pitch) and incongruent stimuli (i.e., the reverse association). The selective attention method, commonly used to test crossmodal correspondences, requires participants to focus on tactile or auditory signals while ignoring the other one presented simultaneously. The results with this method did not reveal any significant compatibility effect. However, a variant of the implicit association task (IAT, e.g., Parise and Spence, 2012) that relies on associations in the response buttons did reveal a significant compatibility effect. This effect was similar in the conditions where the arm was placed vertically and horizontally, that is whether or not the distal–proximal tactile movement corresponded to the free movement of an object subjected to gravity. Finally, in the IAT protocol, similar effects were obtained in blind and in sighted people, i.e., a crossmodal correspondence effect was obtained independently of the arm’s position. These results have methodological implications for the testing of crossmodal correspondences and for the design of sensory substitution devices. They indeed demonstrate the relevance of using spontaneous crossmodal correspondences, and not just arbitrary associations, in order to code aspects of the original signals in conversion systems for blind people.

Nicholas Mirzoeff

-anthroposphere, which has the effect of flattening the causes of the very rupture he is describing. 21 By contrast, South African scholar Lesley Green describes how “[f]olding human history into itself, the technosphere extracts from sedimented political arrangements the labor of the bodies of dévaluées : bodies

Yuqian Yan

This article examines the effect and affect of historical representations in wartime Chinese theater and cinema, as well as the interplay between the two media. With the burgeoning of late Ming stories on stage and on screen, the fall of the Ming became a “chosen trauma” that connects the nation’s past with its historical present. However the traumatic fate of the nation was never the actual subject of representation, but served to enhance the affective power of tragic‐heroic figures. Focusing on A Ying’s Sorrow for the Fall of the Ming, one of the most popular wartime historical plays, the paper studies the narrative structure, performance style and adaptation strategy of the play to demonstrate how patriotic spirit was foregrounded as the key to national survival. It was through the audience’s resonation with the characters’ passionate speech on stage and on screen that individuals’ emotional attachment to the nation was consolidated, both horizontally across space and vertically through history.

Michael J. Carnevale and Laurence R. Harris

Butler, 1968 ), and the effect has even been found in blind individuals. The perceptual effects related to the pitch–height correspondence also extend to visual motion (either real or apparent), where ascending tones are associated with upward visual motion and descending tones are associated with